38 research outputs found

    Regional innovation systems and global flows of knowledge

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    The literature on regional innovation systems emphasizes the role of the region as locus for interactive learning and knowledge exchange, stressing the importance of (geographical) proximity for innovation. Even though the importance of extra-regional knowledge is widely acknowledged, there has been only little emphasis on the particular role and the nature of global knowledge flows. The aim of this chapter is to explore the differentiated nature of global knowledge flows in regional innovation systems. We provide an overview of the different ways firms can gain access to global knowledge sources. Identified knowledge sourcing channels include international R&D collaborations, foreign direct investments, personally embedded relationships, international mobility of skilled labour, virtual communities and online platforms, and the participation in temporary clusters such as fairs, exhibitions, and conferences. Depending on regional innovation system preconditions, firms use and combine different knowledge sourcing channels to access global knowledge. Firms in organisationally thick and diversified regional innovation systems have a geographical advantage in accessing knowledge globally, but even firms in peripheral areas can exchange knowledge worldwide, due to improved means of transport and communication at distance. Furthermore, not only multinational companies that are dominated by analytical or synthetic knowledge bases, but even small and medium sized enterprises in symbolic industries are often deeply involved in global knowledge sourcing activities. We illustrate our arguments with interview data collected among New Media firms in southern Sweden and in the Oslo Region in Norway

    The effect of local and global linkages on the innovativeness in ICT SMEs: does location-specific context matter?

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    Countries differ significantly with regard to the location-specific contexts in which they are embedded. The aim of this paper is to extend the discussion on the effects of local and global innovation collaborations on the degree of novelty of innovation by considering this context. Our main question is: Does embeddedness in the developed or emerging country context affect the likelihood of benefiting from local or global linkages for innovations with higher novelty? The paper is based on data gathered through a survey of firms in the ICT sector in an emerging economy (India) context and from two Scandinavian countries (Sweden and Norway). The findings of this study show that global linkages do indeed impact the degree of novelty of innovation. However, country context does have a moderating effect. While the effect of global linkages is highly positive on the innovativeness of Scandinavian firms, for the Indian SMEs, the linkages that give novel innovations are the regional ones

    Modes of innovation and differentiated responses to globalisation - a case study of innovation modes in the Agder region, Norway

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    The main argument of this paper is that firms and industries are dominated by different innovation modes and that they therefore respond differently to challenges of globalisation. The paper differentiates between three modes: science, technology and innovation (STI), doing, using and interacting (DUI) application mode and the DUI technological mode. These innovation modes are based on different dominant knowledge bases, modes of learning and external knowledge. What is the implication of these differences with regard to competing in a global economy? Our empirical research shows that firms innovating according to the DUI application mode are in a position of negative lock-in due to severe competition from low-cost countries. The DUI technological mode firms are globally competitive due to a strong regional technological base built upon broad collaboration and a mixed innovation strategy. The STI firms are often part of international or national corporations, with a constant threat of being relocated to another country if they are not globally competitive

    Multinational companies embedded in national innovation systems in developing countries: the case of Norwegian fish farming multinationals in Chile

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    Presented at GLOBELICS 2009, 7th International Conference, 6-8 October, Dakar, Senegal.Parallel session 2: Innovation in agriculture, sector studiesThis paper looks at how Norwegian multinational fish farming companies are embedded in the innovation system in Chile. The empirical part is mainly based on interviews with industry representatives in both countries as well as literature and document analyses. There are around 50 Norwegian companies in Chile, most of them involved in salmon farming and supporting activities. Few of them have, however, decided to invest heavily in R&D and innovation locally, and they generally seem to follow a ‚Äúnational treasure‚ÄĚ internationalisation strategy where most R&D is kept in the home base. The data indicate that uncertainties about costs, perceived high risks, cultural differences and weak university-industry relations in Chile are some of the factors behind these decisions. A general policy implication is therefore to strengthen university-industry relations in various ways, and the companies welcome such recent initiatives

    Innovation in an urban context

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    The dissertation is based on a collection of papers addressing different aspects of regional innovation systems in an urban context. The overall aim is to find explanatory factors behind the workings of regional innovation systems in urban agglomerations by looking at the innovation dynamics and innovation outcomes of the Oslo region, and secondly, by analysing how two diverse subsets of economic activity in the Oslo region (and other urban agglomerations) are able to exploit a regional innovation system (clustered manufacturing SME's and Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS). This is done by using theoretical insights and empirical research. The empirical findings indicate that regional and national systems have different roles in the innovation dynamics of the Oslo region. The findings shows that to be a well functioning and operative innovation system barriers rooted in both a ?competence? and a ?cultural? mismatch must be overcome for SME?s, and policy suggestion for a governance structure able to help overcome these barriers are suggested. Further, the research addresses the interrelatedness between KIBS and a regional innovation system characterized by urban agglomeration, firstly by looking at why and how this system is important for KIBS? competitiveness, and secondly how a regional innovation system profits from KIBS agglomeration. The thesis questions what characterises KIBS? clients that are able to innovate and take part in learning processes with KIBS

    Location and knowledge interaction between head office and KIBS in city areas

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    The literature argues for a mutual dependency between head office location and the location of KIBS (knowledge-intensive business services) in major cities or capital regions. The locations of KIBS are presumed to be intimately connected to the agglomeration of corporate head offices, and they are often thought of as forming a joint head-office-corporate-service complex. However, less has been said in the literature about the actual importance of this co-location of head offices and KIBS. How important is co-location for head offices and how important is it for KIBS, why is it important, and does co-location affect the potential for knowledge sharing and learning between the actors (e.g., organizational innovations)? Is geographical proximity a precondition for successful consultancy? By 'unpacking' characteristics of the interaction between head offices and KIBS, with special attention to the significance of proximity between the actors, this paper elaborate these questions. Our discussion is based on empirical data from a survey of the head offices of the 198 largest firms in Norway, intensive case studies of 21 of these head offices, a survey of 600 KIBS firms, and intensive case studies of 13 of these firms