39 research outputs found

    A search for high redshift clusters associated with radio galaxies at 2 < z < 4

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    High redshift radio galaxies are amongst the most massive galaxies in the early Universe and have properties expected from central galaxies in forming clusters. We are carrying out an observational programme on the VLT to find and study galaxy proto clusters around radio galaxies at redshifts 2 < z < 4. First, we use narrow band imaging to select candidate galaxies which show excess Lyman alpha emission at redshifts similar to the central radio galaxy. Then, we use multi object spectroscopy to confirm the redshifts of these candidates and measure the velocity dispersion of the cluster members. Our goal is to observe a sample of about 10 targets and investigate galaxy overdensities as a function of redshift. Here, we report on the current progress of the programme and show some preliminary results which include the discovery of a structure of galaxies at redshift 4.1.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, Sesto conference proceeding 'Probing cosmic evolution with galaxy clusters

    WNB 0313+683: Analysis of a Newly Discovered Giant Radio Galaxy

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    We present the results of a detailed analysis of the newly discovered 15 arcmin large FRII-type radio galaxy WNB 0313+683. It has a redshift of 0.0901 +/- 0.0002 and a projected linear size of 2.0 Mpc. Using multi-frequency radio data from the WENSS and NVSS surveys, the VLA, the WSRT and the 100m Effelsberg telescope, we have derived the age of the source (1.4 +/- 0.1 x 10^8 yrs) and the particle densities around the two radio lobes (>1.6 x 10^(-6) per cubic cm for the southern lobe and >5.8 x 10^(-7) per cubic cm for the northern). From optical spectroscopy we find that the Hα\alpha emission line has a broad component, and that the extinction is large (with colour index E(B-V) = 0.98 +/- 0.10 mag), but is probably mostly galactic in origin (b= +9.8 degrees). Further, the radio core has an inverted spectrum with a spectral index of +0.42 +/- 0.03, suggesting a very compact structure. At 10.5 GHz, it contributes 25% of the total flux density of the source, which is extremely high for radio galaxies. WNB 0313+683 has a very large optical emission line flux with respect to its estimated jet power, when compared with the correlation between these two properties found by Rawlings & Saunders (1991). We argue that this, together with the relatively high radio power and the inverted radio spectrum of the radio core, is suggestive of a new phase of radio activity in this source.Comment: 26 pages, LaTeX (l-aa30 style, including 5 Tables and 30 figures), Accepted for publication in A&A Main Journa

    Radio Observations of the Hubble Deep Field South Region III: The 2.5, 5.2 and 8.7 GHz Catalogues and Radio Source Properties

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    Deep radio observations of a wide region centred on the Hubble Deep Field South have been performed, providing one of the most sensitive set of radio observations acquired on the Australia Telescope Compact Array to date. A central rms of ~10 microJy is reached at four frequencies (1.4, 2.5, 5.2 and 8.7 GHz). In this paper the full source catalogues from the 2.5, 5.2 and 8.7 GHz observations are presented to complement Paper II, along with a detailed analysis of image quality and noise. We produce a consolidated catalogue by matching sources across all four frequencies of our survey. Radio spectral indices are used to investigate the nature of the radio sources and identify a number of sources with flat or inverted radio spectra, which indicates AGN activity. We also find several other interesting sources, including a broadline emitting radio galaxy, a giant radio galaxy and three Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum sources.Comment: Accepted by AJ. 13 figures and 13 table

    The Nascent Red Sequence at z~2

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    We present new constraints on the evolution of the early-type galaxy color-magnitude relation (CMR) based on deep near-infrared imaging of a galaxy protocluster at z=2.16 obtained using NICMOS on-board the Hubble Space Telescope. This field contains a spectroscopically confirmed space-overdensity of Lyman-alpha and H-alpha emitting galaxies which surrounds the powerful radio galaxy MRC 1138-262. Using these NICMOS data we identify a significant surface-overdensity (= 6.2x) of red J-H galaxies in the color-magnitude diagram (when compared with deep NICMOS imaging from the HDF-N and UDF). The optical-NIR colors of these prospective red-sequence galaxies indicate the presence of on-going dust-obscured star-formation or recently formed (<~ 1.5 Gyr)stellar populations in a majority of the red galaxies. We measure the slope and intrinsic scatter of the CMR for three different red galaxy samples selected by a wide color cut, and using photometric redshifts both with and without restrictions on rest-frame optical morphology. In all three cases both the rest-frame U−BU-B slope and intrinsic color scatter are considerably higher than corresponding values for lower redshift galaxy clusters. These results suggest that while some relatively quiescent galaxies do exist in this protocluster both the majority of the galaxy population and hence the color-magnitude relation are still in the process of forming, as expected.Comment: 8 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ (to appear June 1, 2008, v679n2

    The Planck clusters in the LOFAR sky: IV: LoTSS-DR2: statistics of radio halos and re-acceleration models

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    Diffuse cluster-scale synchrotron radio emission is discovered in an increasing number of galaxy clusters in the form of radio halos (RHs), probing the presence of relativistic electrons and magnetic fields in the intra-cluster medium. The favoured scenario to explain their origin is that they trace turbulent regions generated during cluster mergers where particles are re-accelerated. In this framework, RHs are expected to probe cluster dynamics and are predicted to be more frequent in massive systems. Statistical studies are important to study the connection of RHs with cluster dynamics and to constrain theoretical models. Furthermore, low-frequency surveys can shed light on the existence of RHs with very steep radio-spectra, a key prediction of turbulent models. We study the properties of RHs from clusters of the second catalog of Planck Sunyaev Zel'dovich detected sources that lie within the 5634 deg^2 covered by the second Data Release (DR2) of the LOFAR Two-meter Sky Survey. We find that the number of observed RHs, their radio flux density and redshift distributions are in line with what is expected in the framework of the re-acceleration scenario. In addition, the fraction of clusters with RHs increases with the cluster mass, confirming the leading role of the gravitational process of cluster formation in the generation of RHs. These models predict a large fraction of RHs with very steep spectrum in the DR2 Planck sample, this will be tested in future studies, yet a comparison of the occurrence of halos in GMRT and LOFAR samples indeed shows a larger occurrence of RHs at lower frequencies suggesting the presence of a number of very steep spectrum RH that is preferentially detected by LOFAR. Using morphological information we confirm that RHs are preferentially located in merging systems and that the fraction of newly LOFAR discovered RHs is larger in less disturbed systems.Comment: 12 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    Optimized Trigger for Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic-Ray and Neutrino Observations with the Low Frequency Radio Array

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    When an ultra-high energy neutrino or cosmic ray strikes the Lunar surface a radio-frequency pulse is emitted. We plan to use the LOFAR radio telescope to detect these pulses. In this work we propose an efficient trigger implementation for LOFAR optimized for the observation of short radio pulses.Comment: Submitted to Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section

    Obscured and powerful AGN and starburst activities at z~3.5

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    We report the discovery of two sources at z=3.867 and z=3.427 that exhibit powerful starburst and AGN activities. They benefit from data from radio to X rays from the CFHTLS-D1/SWIRE/XMDS surveys. Follow-up optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, and millimeter IRAM/MAMBO observations are also available. We performed an analysis of their spectral energy distributions to understand the origin of their emission and constrain their luminosities. A comparison with other composite systems at similar redshifts from the literature is also presented. The AGN and starburst bolometric luminosities are ~10^13 Lsun. The AGN emission dominates at X ray, optical, mid-infrared wavelengths, and probably in the radio. The starburst emission dominates in the far-infrared. The estimated star formation rates range from 500 to 3000Msun/yr. The AGN near-infrared and X ray emissions are heavily obscured in both sources with an estimated dust extinction Av>4, and Compton-thick gas column densities. The two sources are the most obscured and most luminous AGNs detected at millimeter wavelengths currently known. The sources presented in this work are heavily obscured QSOs, but their properties are not fully explained by the standard AGN unification model. In one source, the ultraviolet and optical spectra suggest the presence of outflowing gas and shocks, and both sources show emission from hot dust, most likely in the vicinity of the nucleus. Evidence of moderate AGN-driven radio activity is found in both sources. The two sources lie on the local M_BH-M_bulge relation. To remain on this relation, their star formation rate has to decrease. Our results support evolutionary models that invoke radio feedback as star formation quenching mechanism, and suggest that such a mechanism might play a major role also in powerful AGNs.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics (12 pages; 6 figures); replaced version includes minor language editing and revised reference

    Multiwavelength characterization of faint ultra steep spectrum radio sources: a search for high-redshift radio galaxies

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    Context. Ultra steep spectrum (USS) radio sources are one of the efficient tracers of powerful high-z radio galaxies (HzRGs). In contrast to searches for powerful HzRGs from radio surveys of moderate depths, fainter USS samples derived from deeper radio surveys can be useful in finding HzRGs at even higher redshifts and in unveiling a population of obscured weaker radio-loud AGN at moderate redshifts. Aims. Using our 325 MHz GMRT observations (5σ ∌ 800 ÎŒJy) and 1.4 GHz VLA observations (5σ ∌ 80−100 ÎŒJy) available in two subfields (VLA-VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VLA-VVDS) and Subaru X-ray Deep Field (SXDF)) of the XMM-LSS field, we derive a large sample of 160 faint USS radio sources and characterize their nature. Methods. The optical and IR counterparts of our USS sample sources are searched using existing deep surveys, at respective wavelengths. We attempt to unveil the nature of our faint USS sources using diagnostic techniques based on mid-IR colors, flux ratios of radio to mid-IR, and radio luminosities. Results. Redshift estimates are available for 86/116 (∌74%) USS sources in the VLA-VVDS field and for 39/44 (∌87%) USS sources in the SXDF fields with median values (zmedian) ∌1.18 and ∌1.57, respectively, which are higher than estimates for non-USS radio sources (zmedian non−USS ∌ 0.99 and ∌0.96), in the two subfields. The MIR color–color diagnostic and radio luminosities are consistent with most of our USS sample sources at higher redshifts (z > 0.5) being AGN. The flux ratio of radio to mid-IR (S 1.4 GHz/S 3.6 ÎŒm) versus redshift diagnostic plot suggests that more than half of our USS sample sources distributed over z ∌ 0.5 to 3.8 are likely to be hosted in obscured environments. A significant fraction (∌26% in the VLA-VVDS and ∌13% in the SXDF) of our USS sources without redshift estimates mostly remain unidentified in the existing optical, IR surveys, and exhibit high radio to mid-IR flux ratio limits similar to HzRGs, and so, can be considered as potential HzRG candidates. Conclusions. Our study shows that the criterion of ultra steep spectral index remains a reasonably efficient method to select high-z sources even at sub-mJy flux densities. In addition to powerful HzRG candidates, our faint USS sample also contains populations of weaker radio-loud AGNs potentially hosted in obscured environments
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