188 research outputs found

    High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO. I. Analysis methods and experimental results

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    In this paper, the first of a two-part work, we present the reconstruction and measurement of muon events detected underground by the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso (E у 1.3 TeV in atmosphere͒. The main aim of this work is to discuss the muon multiplicity distribution as measured in the detector. The data sample analyzed consists of 4.4Ï«10 6 muon events, of which Ïł 263 000 are multiple muons, corresponding to a total live time of 5850 h. In this sample, the observed multiplicities extend above N Ï­35, with intermuon separations up to 50 m and beyond. Additional complementing measurements, such as the inclusive muon flux, the angular distribution, and the muon separation distribution ͑decoherence͒, are also included. The physical interpretation of the results presented here is reported in the following companion paper. ͓S0556-2821͑97͒00615-2͔ PACS number͑s͒: 13.85. Tp, 96.40.De, 96.40.Tv, 98.70.S

    Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

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    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself

    A layer correlation technique for pion energy calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

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    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed and successfully applied to beam test data. It is based on a principal component analysis of energy deposits in the calorimeter layers, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment were calculated with simulated Geant4 Monte Carlo events and used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. For pion beams with energies between 20GeV and 180GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the energy resolution is improved by between 11% and 25% compared to the resolution at the electromagnetic scale. © 2011 CERN for the benefit of the ATLAS collaboration, published under license by IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA

    Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

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    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself

    Study of energy response and resolution of the ATLAS barrel calorimeter to hadrons of energies from 20 to 350GeV

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    A fully instrumented slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to test beams from the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN in 2004. In this paper, the results of the measurements of the response of the barrel calorimeter to hadrons with energies in the range 20-350 GeV and beam impact points and angles corresponding to pseudo-rapidity values in the range 0.2-0.65 are reported. The results are compared to the predictions of a simulation program using the Geant 4 toolkit. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V

    Combined performance studies for electrons at the 2004 ATLAS combined test-beam

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    In 2004 at the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) combined test beam, one slice of the ATLAS barrel detector (including an Inner Detector set-up and the Liquid Argon calorimeter) was exposed to particles from the H8 SPS beam line at CERN. It was the first occasion to test the combined electron performance of ATLAS. This paper presents results obtained for the momentum measurement p with the Inner Detector and for the performance of the electron measurement with the LAr calorimeter (energy E linearity and resolution) in the presence of a magnetic field in the Inner Detector for momenta ranging from 20 GeV/c to 100 GeV/c. Furthermore the particle identification capabilities of the Transition Radiation Tracker, Bremsstrahlungs-recovery algorithms relying on the LAr calorimeter and results obtained for the E/p ratio and a way how to extract scale parameters will be discussed. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA

    Combined performance studies for electron at the 2004 combined test-beam

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    In 2004 at the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) combined test beam, one slice of the ATLAS barrel detector (including an Inner Detector set-up and the Liquid Argon calorimeter) was exposed to particles from the H8 SPS beam line at CERN. It was the first occasion to test the combined electron performance of ATLAS. This paper presents results obtained for the momentum measurement p with the Inner Detector and for the performance of the electron measurement with the LAr calorimeter (energy E linearity and resolution) in the presence of a magnetic field in the Inner Detector for momenta ranging from 20 GeV/c to 100 GeV/c. Furthermore the particle identification capabilities of the Transition Radiation Tracker, Bremsstrahlungs-recovery algorithms relying on the LAr calorimeter and results obtained for the E/p ratio and a way how to extract scale parameters will be discussed. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA

    Study of energy response and resolution of the ATLAS barrel calorimeter to hadrons of energies from 20 to 350 GeV

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    A fully instrumented slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to test beams from the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN in 2004. In this paper, the results of the measurements of the response of the barrel calorimeter to hadrons with energies in the range 20350 GeV and beam impact points and angles corresponding to pseudo-rapidity values in the range 0.20.65 are reported. The results are compared to the predictions of a simulation program using the Geant 4 toolkit. © 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V

    Response and Shower Topology of 2 to 180 GeV Pions Measured with the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter at the CERN Test-beam and Comparison to Monte Carlo Simulations

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    The response of the ATLAS barrel calorimeter to pions with momenta from 22 to 180180~GeV~ is studied in a test--beam at the CERN H8 beam line. %Various methods to reconstruct the deposited pion energies are studied. The mean energy, the energy resolution and the longitudinal and radial shower profiles, and, various observables characterising the shower topology in the calorimeter are measured. The data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations based on a detailed description of the experimental set--up and on various models describing the interaction of particles with matter based on Geant4

    Study of energy response and resolution of the ATLAS barrel calorimeter to hadrons of energies from 20-GeV to 350-GeV

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    A fully instrumented slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to test beams from the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN in 2004. In this paper, the results of the measurements of the response of the barrel calorimeter to hadrons with energies in the range 20 to 350 GeV and beam impact points and angles corresponding to pseudorapidity values in the range 0.2-0.65 are reported. The results are compared to the predictions of a simulation program using the Geant 4 toolkit
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