334 research outputs found

    Reactive intermediates revealed in secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene

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    Isoprene is a significant source of atmospheric organic aerosol; however, the oxidation pathways that lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) have remained elusive. Here, we identify the role of two key reactive intermediates, epoxydiols of isoprene (IEPOX = β-IEPOX + δ-IEPOX) and methacryloylperoxynitrate (MPAN), which are formed during isoprene oxidation under low- and high-NO_x conditions, respectively. Isoprene low-NO_x SOA is enhanced in the presence of acidified sulfate seed aerosol (mass yield 28.6%) over that in the presence of neutral aerosol (mass yield 1.3%). Increased uptake of IEPOX by acid-catalyzed particle-phase reactions is shown to explain this enhancement. Under high-NO_x conditions, isoprene SOA formation occurs through oxidation of its second-generation product, MPAN. The similarity of the composition of SOA formed from the photooxidation of MPAN to that formed from isoprene and methacrolein demonstrates the role of MPAN in the formation of isoprene high-NO_x SOA. Reactions of IEPOX and MPAN in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants (i.e., acidic aerosol produced from the oxidation of SO_2 and NO_2, respectively) could be a substantial source of “missing urban SOA” not included in current atmospheric models

    Modeling of secondary organic aerosol yields from laboratory chamber data

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    Laboratory chamber data serve as the basis for constraining models of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Current models fall into three categories: empirical two-product (Odum), product-specific, and volatility basis set. The product-specific and volatility basis set models are applied here to represent laboratory data on the ozonolysis of α-pinene under dry, dark, and low-NOx conditions in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol. Using five major identified products, the model is fit to the chamber data. From the optimal fitting, SOA oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) and hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratios are modeled. The discrepancy between measured H/C ratios and those based on the oxidation products used in the model fitting suggests the potential importance of particle-phase reactions. Data fitting is also carried out using the volatility basis set, wherein oxidation products are parsed into volatility bins. The product-specific model is most likely hindered by lack of explicit inclusion of particle-phase accretion compounds. While prospects for identification of the majority of SOA products for major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) classes remain promising, for the near future empirical product or volatility basis set models remain the approaches of choice

    Glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulphate seed aerosol: reaction products and reversibility of uptake under dark and irradiated conditions

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    Chamber studies of glyoxal uptake onto ammonium sulphate aerosol were performed under dark and irradiated conditions to gain further insight into processes controlling glyoxal uptake onto ambient aerosol. Organic fragments from glyoxal dimers and trimers were observed within the aerosol under dark and irradiated conditions. Glyoxal monomers and oligomers were the dominant organic compounds formed under the conditions of this study; glyoxal oligomer formation and overall organic growth were found to be reversible under dark conditions. Analysis of high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectra provides evidence for irreversible formation of carbon-nitrogen (C-N) compounds in the aerosol. We have identified 1H-imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde as one C-N product. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time C-N compounds resulting from condensed phase reactions with ammonium sulphate seed have been detected in aerosol. Organosulphates were not detected under dark conditions. However, active photochemistry was found to occur within aerosol during irradiated experiments. Carboxylic acids and organic esters were identified within the aerosol. An organosulphate, which had been previously assigned as glyoxal sulphate in ambient samples and chamber studies of isoprene oxidation, was observed only in the irradiated experiments. Comparison with a laboratory synthesized standard and chemical considerations strongly suggest that this organosulphate is glycolic acid sulphate, an isomer of the previously proposed glyoxal sulphate. Our study shows that reversibility of glyoxal uptake should be taken into account in SOA models and also demonstrates the need for further investigation of C-N compound formation and photochemical processes, in particular organosulphate formation

    Cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) behavior of organic aerosol particles generated by atomization of water and methanol solutions

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    Cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) experiments were carried out for malonic acid, succinic acid, oxalacetic acid, DL-malic acid, glutaric acid, DL-glutamic acid monohydrate, and adipic acid, using both water and methanol as atomization solvents, at three operating supersaturations (0.11%, 0.21%, and 0.32%) in the Caltech three-column CCN instrument (CCNC3). Predictions of CCN behavior for five of these compounds were made using the Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model (ADDEM). The experiments presented here expose important considerations associated with the laboratory measurement of the CCN behavior of organic compounds. Choice of atomization solvent results in significant differences in CCN activation for some of the compounds studied, which could result from residual solvent, particle morphology differences, and chemical reactions between the particle and gas phases. Also, significant changes in aerosol size distribution occurred after classification in a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) for malonic acid and glutaric acid. Filter analysis of adipic acid atomized from methanol solution indicates that gas-particle phase reactions may have taken place after atomization and before the methanol was removed from the sample gas stream. Careful consideration of these experimental issues is necessary for successful design and interpretation of laboratory CCN measurements

    Secondary aerosol formation from atmospheric reactions of aliphatic amines

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    Although aliphatic amines have been detected in both urban and rural atmospheric aerosols, little is known about the chemistry leading to particle formation or the potential aerosol yields from reactions of gas-phase amines. We present here the first systematic study of aerosol formation from the atmospheric reactions of amines. Based on laboratory chamber experiments and theoretical calculations, we evaluate aerosol formation from reaction of OH, ozone, and nitric acid with trimethylamine, methylamine, triethylamine, diethylamine, ethylamine, and ethanolamine. Entropies of formation for alkylammonium nitrate salts are estimated by molecular dynamics calculations enabling us to estimate equilibrium constants for the reactions of amines with nitric acid. Though subject to significant uncertainty, the calculated dissociation equilibrium constant for diethylammonium nitrate is found to be sufficiently small to allow for its atmospheric formation, even in the presence of ammonia which competes for available nitric acid. Experimental chamber studies indicate that the dissociation equilibrium constant for triethylammonium nitrate is of the same order of magnitude as that for ammonium nitrate. All amines studied form aerosol when photooxidized in the presence of NOx with the majority of the aerosol mass present at the peak of aerosol growth consisting of aminium (R3NH+) nitrate salts, which repartition back to the gas phase as the parent amine is consumed. Only the two tertiary amines studied, trimethylamine and triethylamine, are found to form significant non-salt organic aerosol when oxidized by OH or ozone; calculated organic mass yields for the experiments conducted are similar for ozonolysis (15% and 5% respectively) and photooxidation (23% and 8% respectively). The non-salt organic aerosol formed appears to be more stable than the nitrate salts and does not quickly repartition back to the gas phase

    Secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation of naphthalene and alkylnaphthalenes: implications for oxidation of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs)

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    Current atmospheric models do not include secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from gas-phase reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Recent studies have shown that primary emissions undergo oxidation in the gas phase, leading to SOA formation. This opens the possibility that low-volatility gas-phase precursors are a potentially large source of SOA. In this work, SOA formation from gas-phase photooxidation of naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN), 2-methylnaphthalene (2- MN), and 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene (1,2-DMN) is studied in the Caltech dual 28-m^3 chambers. Under high-NO_x conditions and aerosol mass loadings between 10 and 40μgm^(−3), the SOA yields (mass of SOA per mass of hydrocarbon reacted) ranged from 0.19 to 0.30 for naphthalene, 0.19 to 0.39 for 1-MN, 0.26 to 0.45 for 2-MN, and constant at 0.31 for 1,2-DMN. Under low-NO_x conditions, the SOA yields were measured to be 0.73, 0.68, and 0.58, for naphthalene, 1- MN, and 2-MN, respectively. The SOA was observed to be semivolatile under high-NO_x conditions and essentially nonvolatile under low-NO_x conditions, owing to the higher fraction of ring-retaining products formed under low-NO_x conditions. When applying these measured yields to estimate SOA formation from primary emissions of diesel engines and wood burning, PAHs are estimated to yield 3–5 times more SOA than light aromatic compounds over photooxidation timescales of less than 12 h. PAHs can also account for up to 54% of the total SOA from oxidation of diesel emissions, representing a potentially large source of urban SOA

    Measurements of Isoprene-Derived Organosulfates in Ambient Aerosols by Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry—Part 2: Temporal Variability and Formation Mechanisms

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    Organosulfate species have recently gained attention for their potentially significant contribution to secondary organic aerosol (SOA); however, their temporal behavior in the ambient atmosphere has not been probed in detail. In this work, organosulfates derived from isoprene were observed in single particle mass spectra in Atlanta, GA during the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) and the 2008 August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS). Real-time measurements revealed that the highest organosulfate concentrations occurred at night under a stable boundary layer, suggesting gas-to-particle partitioning and subsequent aqueous-phase processing of the organic precursors played key roles in their formation. Further analysis of the diurnal profile suggests possible contributions from multiple production mechanisms, including acid-catalysis and radical-initiation. This work highlights the potential for additional SOA formation pathways in biogenically influenced urban regions to enhance the organic aerosol burden

    Measurements of Isoprene-Derived Organosulfates in Ambient Aerosols by Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry - Part 1: Single Particle Atmospheric Observations in Atlanta

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    Organosulfate species have recently been identified as a potentially significant class of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) species, yet little is known about their behavior in the atmosphere. In this work, organosulfates were observed in individual ambient aerosols using single particle mass spectrometry in Atlanta, GA during the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) and the 2008 August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS). Organosulfates derived from biogenically produced isoprene were detected as deprotonated molecular ions in negative-ion spectra measured by aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry; comparison to high-resolution mass spectrometry data obtained from filter samples corroborated the peak assignments. The size-resolved chemical composition measurements revealed that organosulfate species were mostly detected in submicrometer aerosols and across a range of aerosols from different sources, consistent with secondary reaction products. Detection of organosulfates in a large fraction of negative-ion ambient spectra − ca. 90−95% during ANARChE and ~65% of submicrometer particles in AMIGAS − highlights the ubiquity of organosulfate species in the ambient aerosols of biogenically influenced urban environments

    Chemical Composition of Gas- and Aerosol-Phase Products from the Photooxidation of Naphthalene

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    The current work focuses on the detailed evolution of the chemical composition of both the gas- and aerosol-phase constituents produced from the OH-initiated photooxidation of naphthalene under low- and high-NO_x conditions. Under high-NO_x conditions ring-opening products are the primary gas-phase products, suggesting that the mechanism involves dissociation of alkoxy radicals (RO) formed through an RO_2 + NO pathway, or a bicyclic peroxy mechanism. In contrast to the high-NO_x chemistry, ring-retaining compounds appear to dominate the low-NO_x gas-phase products owing to the RO_2 + HO_2 pathway. We are able to chemically characterize 53−68% of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass. Atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O/C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C), and nitrogen-to-carbon (N/C) ratios measured in bulk samples by high-resolution electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-TOFMS) are the same as the ratios observed with online high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS), suggesting that the chemical compositions and oxidation levels found in the chemically-characterized fraction of the particle phase are representative of the bulk aerosol. Oligomers, organosulfates (R-OSO_3), and other high-molecular-weight (MW) products are not observed in either the low- or high-NO_x SOA; however, in the presence of neutral ammonium sulfate seed aerosol, an organic sulfonic acid (R-SO_3), characterized as hydroxybenzene sulfonic acid, is observed in naphthalene SOA produced under both high- and low-NO_x conditions. Acidic compounds and organic peroxides are found to account for a large fraction of the chemically characterized high- and low-NO_x SOA. We propose that the major gas- and aerosol-phase products observed are generated through the formation and further reaction of 2-formylcinnamaldehyde or a bicyclic peroxy intermediate. The chemical similarity between the laboratory SOA and ambient aerosol collected from Birmingham, Alabama (AL) and Pasadena, California (CA) confirm the importance of PAH oxidation in the formation of aerosol within the urban atmosphere
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