2,802 research outputs found

    Amanita mansehraensis, a new species in section Vaginatae from Pakistan

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    A new species of Amanita subgenus Amanita sect. Vaginatae is described and illustrated based on material collected in pine forests in district Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw, Pakistan. Amanita mansehraensis is recognized by the presence of a light brown or light greyish olive pileus with strong brown or deep brown pileus center; non-appendiculate, rimose, sulcate or plicate striate pileus margin; subglobose to ellipsoid basidiospores; and a saccate volva. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nrLSU) were used for the delimitation of this species based on sequence data. The evolutionary relationships of A. mansehraensis with other species of Amanita were inferred by means of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inferences of the nrLSU dataset and concatenated ITS+nrLSU dataset. Amanita mansehraensis is most closely related to A. brunneofuliginea, A. pseudovaginata, and the recently described A. glarea

    Retention of Low Income Children in Three Dental Studies Investigating Early Childhood Caries

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    Background: To our knowledge no dental studies have looked closely at subject retention, which is crucial to better understand oral health disparities. In this paper, we report retention rates and review and attempt to assess which retention strategies utilized in 3 dental research studies investigating ECC were effective for retaining WIC-enrolled children. The purpose of this paper is to discuss challenges that were encountered when working with these populations, describe characteristics of those not retained, and summarize some recommendations for future dental studies working at WIC sites. Methods: Three dental studies were conducted at WIC clinics in Iowa. Retention strategies focused on maintenance of contact over time, persistence in rescheduling appointments, utilization of incentives, high recruitment, and frequent communication with parents and program staff. Results: Retention rates in the studies ranged from 60 to 75 percent at the final research interventions. Studies were challenged by frequent moves of subjects, missed appointments, disconnected phones, busy schedules of parents, transportation problems, loss of child custody, family illness, and lack of interest. Those not retained in the studies were more likely to be younger, single, and less educated, with a lower household income and a non-Caucasian child. Lower retention was also associated with the presence of carious lesions. Conclusions: Despite many challenges, studies had good retention rates and benefited from the retention strategies. Future dental studies at WIC clinics may also benefit from arranging transportation, obtaining a free, 800 callback number, and offering after-hours appointments for working parents

    (De)Constructing Multiculturalism: A Discourse Analysis of Immigration and Refugee System in Canadian Media

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    A succession of policy changes to the immigration and refugee system has been made in Canada in recent years by the Conservative federal government. Since most people’s understandings about immigration issues come from exposure to the news, the media have an important role in producing and reproducing prevalent public opinions to support and legitimize, or criticize, social and political actions. The present study examines how the immigration and refugee policy changes have been represented in mainstream print media and provides an important interface between recent political decision-making and society with regard to immigration issues. In our analysis, we demonstrate that there is a construction of the existing system as facing crisis due to rampant frauds to legitimize the implementation of more restrictive “get-tough” policies as pragmatic and commonsensical interventions. On the other hand, there is a privileging of framing immigration as being necessary for society, albeit in economic rather than sociocultural terms. In the media, social categorizations of immigrants into “good” and “bad,” and refugee claimants into “genuine” and “bogus,” are deployed to support the policy changes for a market-driven immigration system while restricting the admission of refugees and family-class immigrants, who are often portrayed as a burden on public resources

    ReLiShaft: realistic real-time light shaft generation taking sky illumination into account

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    © 2018 The Author(s) Rendering atmospheric phenomena is known to have its basis in the fields of atmospheric optics and meteorology and is increasingly used in games and movies. Although many researchers have focused on generating and enhancing realistic light shafts, there is still room for improvement in terms of both qualification and quantification. In this paper, a new technique, called ReLiShaft, is presented to generate realistic light shafts for outdoor rendering. In the first step, a realistic light shaft with respect to the sun position and sky colour in any specific location, date and time is constructed in real-time. Then, Hemicube visibility-test radiosity is employed to reveal the effect of a generated sky colour on environments. Two different methods are considered for indoor and outdoor rendering, ray marching based on epipolar sampling for indoor environments, and filtering on regular epipolar of z-partitioning for outdoor environments. Shadow maps and shadow volumes are integrated to consider the computational costs. Through this technique, the light shaft colour is adjusted according to the sky colour in any specific location, date and time. The results show different light shaft colours in different times of day in real-time

    Genetic characterization of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Northeast USA reveals emerging resident and non-indigenous pathogen lineages

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    Gastric infections caused by the environmentally transmitted pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, have increased over the last two decades, including in many parts of the United States (US). However, until recently, infections linked to shellfish from the cool northeastern US waters were rare. Cases have risen in the Northeast, consistent with changes in local V. parahaemolyticus populations toward greater abundance or a shift in constituent pathogens. We examined 94 clinical isolates from a period of increasing disease in the region and compared them to 200 environmental counterparts to identify resident and non-indigenous lineages and to gain insight into the emergence of pathogenic types. Genotyping and multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of clinical isolates collected from 2010 to 2013 in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine revealed their polyphyletic nature. Although 80% of the clinical isolates harbored the trh hemolysin either alone or with tdh, and were urease positive, 14% harbored neither hemolysin exposing a limitation for these traits in pathogen detection. Resident sequence type (ST) 631 strains caused seven infections, and show a relatively recent history of recombination with other clinical and environmental lineages present in the region. ST34 and ST674 strains were each linked to a single infection and these strain types were also identified from the environment as isolates harboring hemolysin genes. Forty-two ST36 isolates were identified from the clinical collection, consistent with reports that this strain type caused a rise in regional infections starting in 2012. Whole-genome phylogenies that included three ST36 outbreak isolates traced to at least two local sources demonstrated that the US Atlantic coastal population of this strain type was indeed derived from the Pacific population. This study lays the foundation for understanding dynamics within natural populations associated with emergence and invasion of pathogenic strain types in the region

    Use of Whole Genome Phylogeny and Comparisons in the Development of a Multiplex-PCR Assay to Identify Sequence Type 36 Vibrio parahaemolyticus

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    Vibrio parahaemolyticus sequence type (ST) 36 strains that are native to the Pacific Ocean have recently caused multi-state outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to shellfish harvested from the Atlantic Ocean. Whole genome comparisons of 295 genomes of V. parahaemolyticus, including several traced to northeastern US sources, were used to identify diagnostic loci: one putatively encoding an endonuclease (prp), and two others potentially conferring O-antigenic properties (cps and flp). The combination of all three loci was present only in one clade of closely-related strains, of ST36, ST59 and one additional unknown sequence type. However, each locus was also identified outside this clade, with prp and flp occurring in only two non-clade isolates, and cps in four. Based on the distribution of these loci in sequenced genomes, prp could identify clade strains with \u3e99% accuracy, but the addition of one more locus would increase accuracy to 100%. Oligonucleotide primers targeting prp and cps were combined in a multiplex PCR method that defines species using the tlh locus, and determines presence of both the tdh and trh hemolysin-encoding genes which are also present in ST36. Application of the method in vitro to a collection of 94 clinical isolates collected over a four year period in three Northeastern US, and 87 environmental isolates, revealed the prp and cps amplicons were only detected in clinical isolates identified as belonging to the ST36-clade, and in no environmental isolates from the region. The assay should improve detection and surveillance, thereby reducing infections

    X ray spectra of X Per

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    The cosmic X-ray spectroscopy experiment on OSO-8 observed X Per for twenty days during two observations in Feb. 1976 and Feb. 1977. The spectrum of X Per varies in phase with its 13.9 min period, hardening significantly at X-ray minimum. Unlike other X-ray binary pulsar spectra, X Per's spectra do not exhibit iron line emission or strong absorption features. The data show no evidence for a 22 hour periodicity in the X-ray intensity of X Per. These results indicate that the X-ray emission from X Per may be originating from a neutron star in a low density region far from the optically identified Be star

    A 4.8 hour periodicity in the spectra of Cyg X-3

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    The X-ray spectra from three observations of the X-ray binary Cyg X-3 by the cosmic X-ray spectroscopy experiment on OSO can be represented by power-law continua with strong iron line emission. Comparisons of spectra taken within the same observation at various phases of the 4.8 hour period reveal a relative excess of low energy X-ray emission near zero phase (i.e. the minimum) of the 4.8 hour modulation. In addition, the centroid of the line emission is observed to vary in phase with the 4.8 hour cycle. The possibility of persistent thermal X-ray emission from material surrounding the binary system is introduced in an effort to account for the observed effects

    DETECTION OF UNFOCUSED RAINDROPS ON CAR WINDSCREEN COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS USING BACKGROUND SUBRACTIONAND AND WATERSHED ALGORTIHM

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    Use of ADAS in top end cars has been prevalent over past decade. Electronic control and assistance in cars has proven to be a major feature resulting in passenger safety, saving lives as well as preventing fatalities. This system can be trusted or counted upon in clear weather conditions, which by now has been the only limitation questioning the usefulness of ADAS. Current research focuses to strengthen ADAS in rainy climatic conditions. This paper puts forth a novel idea to detect raindrops where ADAS can be used to increase its functionality in rainy condition to control the speed of over-speeding cars. The method basically includes image database on which Background Subtraction and Watershed algorithm are run to find out a numerical data, and to measure performance of both the method. This data can be used to improve ADAS performance in rainy conditions
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