14,244 research outputs found

    Access to cancer clinical trials for racialised older adults: an equity-focused rapid scoping review protocol

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    Background The intersection of race and older age compounds existing health disparities experienced by historically marginalised communities. Therefore, racialised older adults with cancer are more disadvantaged in their access to cancer clinical trials compared with age-matched counterparts. To determine what has already been published in this area, the rapid scoping review question are: what are the barriers, facilitators and potential solutions for enhancing access to cancer clinical trials among racialised older adults?Methods We will use a rapid scoping review methodology in which we follow the six-step framework of Arksey and O’Malley, including a systematic search of the literature with abstract and full-text screening to be conducted by two independent reviewers, data abstraction by one reviewer and verification by a second reviewer using an Excel data abstraction sheet. Articles focusing on persons aged 18 and over who identify as a racialised person with cancer, that describe therapies/therapeutic interventions/prevention/outcomes related to barriers, facilitators and solutions to enhancing access to and equity in cancer clinical trials will be eligible for inclusion in this rapid scoping review.Ethics and dissemination All data will be extracted from published literature. Hence, ethical approval and patient informed consent are not required. The findings of the scoping review will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentation at international conferences

    SPT Clusters with DES and HST Weak Lensing. II. Cosmological Constraints from the Abundance of Massive Halos

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    International audienceWe present cosmological constraints from the abundance of galaxy clusters selected via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in South Pole Telescope (SPT) data with a simultaneous mass calibration using weak gravitational lensing data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The cluster sample is constructed from the combined SPT-SZ, SPTpol ECS, and SPTpol 500d surveys, and comprises 1,005 confirmed clusters in the redshift range 0.251.780.25-1.78 over a total sky area of 5,200 deg2^2. We use DES Year 3 weak-lensing data for 688 clusters with redshifts z<0.95z<0.95 and HST weak-lensing data for 39 clusters with 0.6<z<1.70.6<z<1.7. The weak-lensing measurements enable robust mass measurements of sample clusters and allow us to empirically constrain the SZ observable--mass relation. For a flat Λ\LambdaCDM cosmology, and marginalizing over the sum of massive neutrinos, we measure Ωm=0.286±0.032\Omega_\mathrm{m}=0.286\pm0.032, σ8=0.817±0.026\sigma_8=0.817\pm0.026, and the parameter combination σ8(Ωm/0.3)0.25=0.805±0.016\sigma_8\,(\Omega_\mathrm{m}/0.3)^{0.25}=0.805\pm0.016. Our measurement of S8σ8Ωm/0.3=0.795±0.029S_8\equiv\sigma_8\,\sqrt{\Omega_\mathrm{m}/0.3}=0.795\pm0.029 and the constraint from Planck CMB anisotropies (2018 TT,TE,EE+lowE) differ by 1.1σ1.1\sigma. In combination with that Planck dataset, we place a 95% upper limit on the sum of neutrino masses mν<0.18\sum m_\nu<0.18 eV. When additionally allowing the dark energy equation of state parameter ww to vary, we obtain w=1.45±0.31w=-1.45\pm0.31 from our cluster-based analysis. In combination with Planck data, we measure w=1.340.15+0.22w=-1.34^{+0.22}_{-0.15}, or a 2.2σ2.2\sigma difference with a cosmological constant. We use the cluster abundance to measure σ8\sigma_8 in five redshift bins between 0.25 and 1.8, and we find the results to be consistent with structure growth as predicted by the Λ\LambdaCDM model fit to Planck primary CMB data

    Simultaneous Millimeter-wave, Gamma-Ray, and Optical Monitoring of the Blazar PKS 2326-502 during a Flaring State

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    Including millimeter-wave data in multiwavelength studies of the variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) can provide insights into AGN physics that are not easily accessible at other wavelengths. We demonstrate in this work the potential of cosmic microwave background (CMB) telescopes to provide long-term, high-cadence millimeter-wave AGN monitoring over large fractions of sky. We report on a pilot study using data from the SPTpol instrument on the South Pole Telescope (SPT), which was designed to observe the CMB at arcminute and larger angular scales. Between 2013 and 2016, SPTpol was used primarily to observe a single 500 deg ^2 field, covering the entire field several times per day with detectors sensitive to radiation in bands centered at 95 and 150 GHz. We use SPT 150 GHz observations to create AGN light curves, and we compare these millimeter-wave light curves to those at other wavelengths, in particular γ -ray and optical. In this Letter, we focus on a single source, PKS 2326-502, which has extensive, day-timescale monitoring data in gamma-ray, optical, and now millimeter-wave between 2013 and 2016. We find PKS 2326-502 to be in a flaring state in the first 2 yr of this monitoring, and we present a search for evidence of correlated variability between millimeter-wave, optical R- band, and γ -ray observations. This pilot study is paving the way for AGN monitoring with current and upcoming CMB experiments such as SPT-3G, Simons Observatory, and CMB-S4, including multiwavelength studies with facilities such as Vera C. Rubin Observatories Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    Euclid preparation. XXXI. The effect of the variations in photometric passbands on photometric-redshift accuracy

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    The technique of photometric redshifts has become essential for the exploitation of multi-band extragalactic surveys. While the requirements on photo-zs for the study of galaxy evolution mostly pertain to the precision and to the fraction of outliers, the most stringent requirement in their use in cosmology is on the accuracy, with a level of bias at the sub-percent level for the Euclid cosmology mission. A separate, and challenging, calibration process is needed to control the bias at this level of accuracy. The bias in photo-zs has several distinct origins that may not always be easily overcome. We identify here one source of bias linked to the spatial or time variability of the passbands used to determine the photometric colours of galaxies. We first quantified the effect as observed on several well-known photometric cameras, and found in particular that, due to the properties of optical filters, the redshifts of off-axis sources are usually overestimated. We show using simple simulations that the detailed and complex changes in the shape can be mostly ignored and that it is sufficient to know the mean wavelength of the passbands of each photometric observation to correct almost exactly for this bias; the key point is that this mean wavelength is independent of the spectral energy distribution of the source}. We use this property to propose a correction that can be computationally efficiently implemented in some photo-z algorithms, in particular template-fitting. We verified that our algorithm, implemented in the new photo-z code Phosphoros, can effectively reduce the bias in photo-zs on real data using the CFHTLS T007 survey, with an average measured bias Delta z over the redshift range 0.4<z<0.7 decreasing by about 0.02, specifically from Delta z~0.04 to Delta z~0.02 around z=0.5. Our algorithm is also able to produce corrected photometry for other applications.Comment: 19 pages, 13 figures; Accepted for publication in A&

    Binding energies of ground and isomeric states in neutron-rich Ru isotopes: measurements at JYFLTRAP and comparison to theory

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    International audienceWe report on precision mass measurements of 113,115,117^{113,115,117}Ru performed with the JYFLTRAP double Penning trap mass spectrometer at the Accelerator Laboratory of University of Jyväskylä. The phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique was used to resolve the ground and isomeric states in 113,115^{113,115}Ru and enabled for the first time a measurement of the isomer excitation energies, Ex(113E_x(^{113}Rum)=100.4(9)^{m})=100.4(9) keV and Ex(115E_x(^{115}Rum)=129(5)^{m})=129(5) keV. The ground state of 117^{117}Ru was measured using the time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance technique. The new mass-excess value for 117^{117}Ru is around 37 keV lower and 7 times more precise than the previous literature value. With the more precise ground-state mass values, the evolution of the two-neutron shell-gap energies is further constrained and a similar trend as predicted by the BSkG1 model is obtained up to the neutron number N=71N=71