111 research outputs found

    Targeting survivin with Tanshinone IIA inhibits tumor growth and overcomes chemoresistance in colorectal cancer

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    Abstract The inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin has a critical regulatory role in carcinogenesis and treatment tolerance in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the targeted drugs for survivin protein are extremely limited. In the present research, we discovered that Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) played a dual regulatory role in inhibiting tumorigenesis and reversing 5-Fu tolerance via modulating the expression and phosphorylation of survivin in CRC cells. Mechanistically, Tan IIA suppressed the Akt/WEE1/CDK1 signaling pathway, which led to the downregulation of survivin Thr34 phosphorylation and destruction of the interaction between USP1 and survivin to promote survivin ubiquitination and degradation. Furthermore, Tan IIA significantly facilitated chemoresistant CRC cells to 5-Fu sensitivity. These results revealed that Tan IIA possessed a strong antitumor activity against CRC cells and could act as an up-and-coming agent for treating CRC and overcoming chemotherapy resistance

    QSAR and Chemical Read-Across Analysis of 370 Potential MGMT Inactivators to Identify the Structural Features Influencing Inactivation Potency

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    O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) constitutes an important cellular mechanism for repairing potentially cytotoxic DNA damage induced by guanine O6-alkylating agents and can render cells highly resistant to certain cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. A wide variety of potential MGMT inactivators have been designed and synthesized for the purpose of overcoming MGMT-mediated tumor resistance. We determined the inactivation potency of these compounds against human recombinant MGMT using [3H]-methylated-DNA-based MGMT inactivation assays and calculated the IC50 values. Using the results of 370 compounds, we performed quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) modeling to identify the correlation between the chemical structure and MGMT-inactivating ability. Modeling was based on subdividing the sorted pIC50 values or on chemical structures or was random. A total of nine molecular descriptors were presented in the model equation, in which the mechanistic interpretation indicated that the status of nitrogen atoms, aliphatic primary amino groups, the presence of O-S at topological distance 3, the presence of Al-O-Ar/Ar-O-Ar/R..O..R/R-O-C=X, the ionization potential and hydrogen bond donors are the main factors responsible for inactivation ability. The final model was of high internal robustness, goodness of fit and prediction ability (R2pr = 0.7474, Q2Fn = 0.7375–0.7437, CCCpr = 0.8530). After the best splitting model was decided, we established the full model based on the entire set of compounds using the same descriptor combination. We also used a similarity-based read-across technique to further improve the external predictive ability of the model (R2pr = 0.7528, Q2Fn = 0.7387–0.7449, CCCpr = 0.8560). The prediction quality of 66 true external compounds was checked using the “Prediction Reliability Indicator” tool. In summary, we defined key structural features associated with MGMT inactivation, thus allowing for the design of MGMT inactivators that might improve clinical outcomes in cancer treatment

    A multi-functional hypoxia/esterase dual stimulus responsive and hyaluronic acid-based nanomicelle for targeting delivery of chloroethylnitrosouea

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    Abstract Carmustine (BCNU), a vital type of chloroethylnitrosourea (CENU), inhibits tumor cells growth by inducing DNA damage at O 6 position of guanine and eventually forming dG-dC interstrand cross-links (ICLs). However, the clinical application of BCNU is hindered to some extent by the absence of tumor selectivity, poor stability and O 6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) mediated drug resistance. In recent years, tumor microenvironment has been widely utilized for advanced drug delivery. In the light of the features of tumor microenvironment, we constructed a multifunctional hypoxia/esterase-degradable nanomicelle with AGT inhibitory activity named HACB NPs for tumor-targeting BCNU delivery and tumor sensitization. HACB NPs was self-assembled from hyaluronic acid azobenzene AGT inhibitor conjugates, in which O 6-BG analog acted as an AGT inhibitor, azobenzene acted as a hypoxia-responsive linker and carboxylate ester bond acted as both an esterase-sensitive switch and a connector with hyaluronic acid (HA). The obtained HACB NPs possessed good stability, favorable biosafety and hypoxia/esterase-responsive drug-releasing ability. BCNU-loaded HACB/BCNU NPs exhibited superior cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing ability toward the human uterine cervix carcinoma HeLa cells compared with traditional combined medication of BCNU plus O 6-BG. In vivo studies further demonstrated that after a selective accumulation in the tumor site, the micelles could respond to hypoxic tumor tissue for rapid drug release to an effective therapeutic dosage. Thus, this multifunctional stimulus-responsive nanocarrier could be a new promising strategy to enhance the anticancer efficacy and reduce the side effects of BCNU and other CENUs

    Randomized algorithms for fully online multiprocessor scheduling with testing

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    We contribute the first randomized algorithm that is an integration of arbitrarily many deterministic algorithms for the fully online multiprocessor scheduling with testing problem. When there are two machines, we show that with two component algorithms its expected competitive ratio is already strictly smaller than the best proven deterministic competitive ratio lower bound. Such algorithmic results are rarely seen in the literature. Multiprocessor scheduling is one of the first combinatorial optimization problems that have received numerous studies. Recently, several research groups examined its testing variant, in which each job JjJ_j arrives with an upper bound uju_j on the processing time and a testing operation of length tjt_j; one can choose to execute JjJ_j for uju_j time, or to test JjJ_j for tjt_j time to obtain the exact processing time pjp_j followed by immediately executing the job for pjp_j time. Our target problem is the fully online version, in which the jobs arrive in sequence so that the testing decision needs to be made at the job arrival as well as the designated machine. We propose an expected (φ+3+1)(3.1490)(\sqrt{\varphi + 3} + 1) (\approx 3.1490)-competitive randomized algorithm as a non-uniform probability distribution over arbitrarily many deterministic algorithms, where φ=5+12\varphi = \frac {\sqrt{5} + 1}2 is the Golden ratio. When there are two machines, we show that our randomized algorithm based on two deterministic algorithms is already expected 3φ+3137φ4(2.1839)\frac {3 \varphi + 3 \sqrt{13 - 7\varphi}}4 (\approx 2.1839)-competitive. Besides, we use Yao's principle to prove lower bounds of 1.66821.6682 and 1.65221.6522 on the expected competitive ratio for any randomized algorithm at the presence of at least three machines and only two machines, respectively, and prove a lower bound of 2.21172.2117 on the competitive ratio for any deterministic algorithm when there are only two machines.Comment: 21 pages with 1 plot; an extended abstract to be submitte

    DNA self-assembly nanoflower reverse P-glycoprotein mediated drug resistance in chronic myelogenous leukemia therapy

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    Introduction: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder caused by the BCR-ABL chimeric tyrosine kinase. Vincristine (VCR) is widely used in leukemia therapy but is hindered by multidrug resistance (MDR).Methods: We prepared DNA nanoflower via self-assembly for the delivery of VCR and P-glycoprotein small interfering RNA (P-gp siRNA).Results and Discussion: The as-prepared nanoflower had a floriform shape with high loading efficiency of VCR (80%). Furthermore, the nanoflower could deliver VCR and P-gp siRNA into MDR CML cells and induce potent cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo, thus overcoming MDR of CML. Overall, this nanoflower is a promising tool for resistant CML therapy

    HuR-mediated nucleocytoplasmic translocation of HOTAIR relieves its inhibition of osteogenic differentiation and promotes bone formation

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    Abstract Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) osteogenic differentiation and osteoblast function play critical roles in bone formation, which is a highly regulated process. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) perform diverse functions in a variety of biological processes, including BMSC osteogenic differentiation. Although several studies have reported that HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) is involved in BMSC osteogenic differentiation, its effect on bone formation in vivo remains unclear. Here, by constructing transgenic mice with BMSC (Prx1-HOTAIR)- and osteoblast (Bglap-HOTAIR)-specific overexpression of HOTAIR, we found that Prx1-HOTAIR and Bglap-HOTAIR transgenic mice show different bone phenotypes in vivo. Specifically, Prx1-HOTAIR mice showed delayed bone formation, while Bglap-HOTAIR mice showed increased bone formation. HOTAIR inhibits BMSC osteogenic differentiation but promotes osteoblast function in vitro. Furthermore, we identified that HOTAIR is mainly located in the nucleus of BMSCs and in the cytoplasm of osteoblasts. HOTAIR displays a nucleocytoplasmic translocation pattern during BMSC osteogenic differentiation. We first identified that the RNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) is responsible for HOTAIR nucleocytoplasmic translocation. HOTAIR is essential for osteoblast function, and cytoplasmic HOTAIR binds to miR-214 and acts as a ceRNA to increase Atf4 protein levels and osteoblast function. Bglap-HOTAIR mice, but not Prx1-HOTAIR mice, showed alleviation of bone loss induced by unloading. This study reveals the importance of temporal and spatial regulation of HOTAIR in BMSC osteogenic differentiation and bone formation, which provides new insights into precise regulation as a target for bone loss

    Divergence of a genomic island leads to the evolution of melanization in a halophyte root fungus

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    AbstractUnderstanding how organisms adapt to extreme living conditions is central to evolutionary biology. Dark septate endophytes (DSEs) constitute an important component of the root mycobiome and they are often able to alleviate host abiotic stresses. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial association between the DSE Laburnicola rhizohalophila and its host, the native halophyte Suaeda salsa, using population genomics. Based on genome-wide Fst (pairwise fixation index) and Vst analyses, which compared the variance in allele frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs), respectively, we found a high level of genetic differentiation between two populations. CNV patterns revealed population-specific expansions and contractions. Interestingly, we identified a ~20 kbp genomic island of high divergence with a strong sign of positive selection. This region contains a melanin-biosynthetic polyketide synthase gene cluster linked to six additional genes likely involved in biosynthesis, membrane trafficking, regulation, and localization of melanin. Differences in growth yield and melanin biosynthesis between the two populations grown under 2% NaCl stress suggested that this genomic island contributes to the observed differences in melanin accumulation. Our findings provide a better understanding of the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms underlying the adaptation to saline conditions of the L. rhizohalophila–S. salsa symbiosis.</jats:p

    Widespread multiple insecticide resistance in the major dengue vector Aedes albopictus in Hainan Province, China.

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    BackgroundAedes albopictus is a highly invasive mosquito and has become a potential vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Insecticide-based mosquito interventions are the main tools for vector-borne disease control. However, mosquito resistance to insecticides is a major threat to effective prevention and control. Five Ae. albopictus populations across Hainan Province, China were investigated for susceptibility to multiple insecticide and resistance mechanisms.ResultsLarval bioassays indicated that resistance to pyrethroids was common in all larval populations. Adult bioassays revealed all populations were either resistant or highly resistant to at least four of the six synthetic insecticides (deltamethrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, propoxur, malathion, and DDT) tested. Pre-exposure of mosquitoes to the synergistic agent piperonyl butoxide (PBO) increased mosquito mortality by 2.4-43.3% in bioassays to DDT, malathion, and permethrin and rendered mosquito sensitive to deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, and propoxur. The frequency of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations (F1534S and F1534C) ranged from 69.8% to 89.3% and from 38.1% to 87.0% in field-resistant and sensitive populations, respectively. F1534S mutation was significantly associated with pyrethroid resistance. No mutation was detected in the acetylcholinesterase (ace-1) gene in the two examined populations.ConclusionThis study provides evidence of widespread resistance to multiple insecticides in Ae. albopictus in Hainan Province, China. Both kdr mutations and metabolic detoxification were potential causes of insecticide resistance for Ae. albopictus. Our findings highlight the need for insecticide resistance management and mosquito control measures that do not entirely depend on synthetic insecticides. © 2020 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley &amp; Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry

    Widespread multiple insecticide resistance in the major dengue vector Aedes albopictus in Hainan Province, China.

    No full text
    BackgroundAedes albopictus is a highly invasive mosquito and has become a potential vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Insecticide-based mosquito interventions are the main tools for vector-borne disease control. However, mosquito resistance to insecticides is a major threat to effective prevention and control. Five Ae. albopictus populations across Hainan Province, China were investigated for susceptibility to multiple insecticide and resistance mechanisms.ResultsLarval bioassays indicated that resistance to pyrethroids was common in all larval populations. Adult bioassays revealed all populations were either resistant or highly resistant to at least four of the six synthetic insecticides (deltamethrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, propoxur, malathion, and DDT) tested. Pre-exposure of mosquitoes to the synergistic agent piperonyl butoxide (PBO) increased mosquito mortality by 2.4-43.3% in bioassays to DDT, malathion, and permethrin and rendered mosquito sensitive to deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, and propoxur. The frequency of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations (F1534S and F1534C) ranged from 69.8% to 89.3% and from 38.1% to 87.0% in field-resistant and sensitive populations, respectively. F1534S mutation was significantly associated with pyrethroid resistance. No mutation was detected in the acetylcholinesterase (ace-1) gene in the two examined populations.ConclusionThis study provides evidence of widespread resistance to multiple insecticides in Ae. albopictus in Hainan Province, China. Both kdr mutations and metabolic detoxification were potential causes of insecticide resistance for Ae. albopictus. Our findings highlight the need for insecticide resistance management and mosquito control measures that do not entirely depend on synthetic insecticides. © 2020 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley &amp; Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry
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