767 research outputs found

    Impact of Non-Linear High-Power Amplifiers on Cooperative Relaying Systems

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    In this paper, we investigate the impact of the high-power amplifier non-linear distortion on multiple relay systems by introducing the soft envelope limiter, traveling wave tube amplifier, and solid-state power amplifier to the relays. The system employs amplify-and-forward either fixed or variable gain relaying and uses the opportunistic relay selection with outdated channel state information to select the best relay. The results show that the performance loss is small at low rates; however, it is significant for high rates. In particular, the outage probability and the bit error rate are saturated by an irreducible floor at high rates. The same analysis is pursued for the capacity and shows that it is saturated by a detrimental ceiling as the average signal-to-noise ratio becomes higher. This result contrasts the case of the ideal hardware where the capacity grows indefinitely. Moreover, the results show that the capacity ceiling is proportional to the impairment's parameter and for some special cases the impaired systems practically operate in acceptable conditions. Closed-forms and high SNR asymptotes of the outage probability, the bit error rate, and the capacity are derived. Finally, analytical expressions are validated by the Monte Carlo simulation

    Cloud-Assisted Remote Sensor Network Virtualization for Distributed Consensus Estimation

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    We develop cloud-assisted remote sensing techniques for enabling distributed consensus estimation of unknown parameters in a given geographic area. We first propose a distributed sensor network virtualization algorithm that searches for, selects, and coordinates Internet-accessible sensors to perform a sensing task in a specific region. The algorithm converges in linearithmic time for large-scale networks, and requires exchanging a number of messages that is at most linear in the number of sensors. Second, we design an uncoordinated, distributed algorithm that relies on the selected sensors to estimate a set of parameters without requiring synchronization among the sensors. Our simulation results show that the proposed algorithm, when compared to conventional ADMM (Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers), reduces communication overhead significantly without compromising the estimation error. In addition, the convergence time, though increases slightly, is still linear as in the case of conventional ADMM.Comment: 11 pages, double column, pre-submissio

    Extracting and Exploiting Inherent Sparsity for Efficient IoT Support in 5G: Challenges and Potential Solutions

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    Besides enabling an enhanced mobile broadband, next generation of mobile networks (5G) are envisioned for the support of massive connectivity of heterogeneous Internet of Things (IoT)s. These IoTs are envisioned for a large number of use-cases including smart cities, environment monitoring, smart vehicles, etc. Unfortunately, most IoTs have very limited computing and storage capabilities and need cloud services. Hence, connecting these devices through 5G systems requires huge spectrum resources in addition to handling the massive connectivity and improved security. This article discusses the challenges facing the support of IoTs through 5G systems. The focus is devoted to discussing physical layer limitations in terms of spectrum resources and radio access channel connectivity. We show how sparsity can be exploited for addressing these challenges especially in terms of enabling wideband spectrum management and handling the connectivity by exploiting device-to-device communications and edge-cloud. Moreover, we identify major open problems and research directions that need to be explored towards enabling the support of massive heterogeneous IoTs through 5G systems.Comment: Accepted for publication in IEEE Wireless Communications Magazin

    Mixed RF/FSO Relaying Systems with Hardware Impairments

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    In this work, we provide a detailed analysis of a dual-hop fixed gain (FG) amplify-and-forward relaying system, consisting of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and free-space optical (FSO) channels. We introduce an impairment model which is the soft envelope limiter (SEL). Additionally, we propose the partial relay selection (PRS) protocol with outdated channel state information (CSI) based on the knowledge of the RF channels in order to select one relay for the communication. Moreover, the RF channels of the first hop experience Rayleigh fading while we propose a unified fading model for the FSO channels, called the unified Gamma Gamma (GG), taking into account the atmospheric turbulence, the path loss and the misalignment between the transmitter and the receiver aperture also called the pointing error. Novel closed-forms of the outage probability (OP), the bit error probability (BEP) and the average ergodic capacity (EC) are derived in terms of Meijer-G and Fox-H functions. Capitalizing on these metrics, we also derive the asymptotical high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in order to get engineering insights into the impacts of the hardware impairments and the system parameters as well. Finally, using Monte Carlo simulations, we validate numerically the derived mathematical formulations.Comment: arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1901.0424

    Preserving Location Privacy in Mobile Edge Computing

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    The burgeoning technology of Mobile Edge Computing is attracting the traditional LBS and LS to deploy due to its nature characters such as low latency and location awareness. Although this transplant will avoid the location privacy threat from the central cloud provider, there still exists the privacy concerns in the LS of MEC scenario. Location privacy threat arises during the procedure of the fingerprint localization, and the previous studies on location privacy are ineffective because of the different threat model and information semantic. To address the location privacy in MEC environment, we designed LoPEC, a novel and effective scheme for protecting location privacy for the MEC devices. By the proper model of the RAN access points, we proposed the noise-addition method for the fingerprint data, and successfully induce the attacker from recognizing the real location. Our evaluation proves that LoPEC effectively prevents the attacker from obtaining the user's location precisely in both single-point and trajectory scenarios

    Efficient Spectrum Availability Information Recovery for Wideband DSA Networks: A Weighted Compressive Sampling Approach

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    Compressive sampling has great potential for making wideband spectrum sensing possible at sub-Nyquist sampling rates. As a result, there have recently been research efforts that leverage compressive sampling to enable efficient wideband spectrum sensing. These efforts consider homogenous wideband spectrum, where all bands are assumed to have similar PU traffic characteristics. In practice, however, wideband spectrum is not homogeneous, in that different spectrum bands could present different PU occupancy patterns. In fact, the nature of spectrum assignment, in which applications of similar types are often assigned bands within the same block, dictates that wideband spectrum is indeed heterogeneous. In this paper, we consider heterogeneous wideband spectrum, and exploit its inherent, block-like structure to design efficient compressive spectrum sensing techniques that are well suited for heterogeneous wideband spectrum. We propose a weighted β„“1βˆ’\ell_1-minimization sensing information recovery algorithm that achieves more stable recovery than that achieved by existing approaches while accounting for the variations of spectrum occupancy across both the time and frequency dimensions. In addition, we show that our proposed algorithm requires a lesser number of sensing measurements when compared to the state-of-the-art approaches

    LCD: Low Latency Command Dissemination for A Platoon of Vehicles

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    In a vehicular platoon, a lead vehicle that is responsible for managing the platoon's moving directions and velocity periodically disseminates control commands to following vehicles based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications. However, reducing command dissemination latency with multiple vehicles while ensuring successful message delivery to the tail vehicle is challenging. We propose a new linear dynamic programming algorithm using backward induction and interchange arguments to minimize the dissemination latency of the vehicles. Furthermore, a closed form of dissemination latency in vehicular platoon is obtained by utilizing Markov chain with M/M/1 queuing model. Simulation results confirm that the proposed dynamic programming algorithm improves the dissemination rate by at least 50.9%, compared to similar algorithms in the literature. Moreover, it also approximates the best performance with the maximum gap of up to 0.2 second in terms of latency.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures, accepted in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 201

    Partial Relay Selection For Hybrid RF/FSO Systems with Hardware Impairments

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    In this paper, we investigate the performance analysis of dual hop relaying system consisting of asymmetric Radio Frequency (RF)/Free Optical Space (FSO) links. The RF channels follow a Rayleigh distribution and the optical links are subject to Gamma-Gamma fading. We also introduce impairments to our model and we suggest Partial Relay Selection (PRS) protocol with Amplify-and-Forward (AF) fixed gain relaying. The benefits of employing optical communication with RF, is to increase the system transfer rate and thus improving the system bandwidth. Many previous research attempts assuming ideal hardware (source, relays, etc.) without impairments. In fact, this assumption is still valid for low-rate systems. However, these hardware impairments can no longer be neglected for high-rate systems in order to get consistent results. Novel analytical expressions of outage probability and ergodic capacity of our model are derived taking into account ideal and non-ideal hardware cases. Furthermore, we study the dependence of the outage probability and the system capacity considering, the effect of the correlation between the outdated CSI (Channel State Information) and the current source-relay link, the number of relays, the rank of the selected relay and the average optical Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) over weak and strong atmospheric turbulence. We also demonstrate that for a non-ideal case, the end-to-end Signal to Noise plus Distortion Ratio (SNDR) has a certain ceiling for high SNR range. However, the SNDR grows infinitely for the ideal case and the ceiling caused by impairments no longer exists. Finally, numerical and simulation results are presented

    Secure Data Access for Wireless Body Sensor Networks

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    Recently, with the support of mobile cloud computing, a large number of health related data collected from various body sensor networks can be managed efficiently. However, to ensure data security and data privacy in cloud-integrated body sensor networks is an important and challenging issue. In this paper, we present a novel secure access control mechanism Mask Certificate Attribute Based Encryption for cloud integrated body sensor networks. A specific signature is designed to mask the plaintext, then the masked data can be securely outsourced to cloud severs. An authorization certificate composing of the signature and related privilege items is constructed that is used to grant privileges to data receivers. To ensure security, a unique value is chosen to mask the certificate for each data receiver. The analysis shows that the proposed scheme has less computational cost and storage cost compared with other popular models

    Mixed RF/FSO Cooperative Relaying Systems with Co-Channel Interference

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    In this paper, we provide a global framework analysis of a dual-hop mixed Radio Frequency (RF)/Free Space Optical (FSO) system with multiple branches/relays wherein the first and second hops, respectively, consist of RF and FSO channels. To cover various cases of fading, we propose generalized channels' models for RF and FSO links that follow the Nakagami-m and the Double Generalized Gamma (DGG) distributions, respectively. Moreover, we suggest Channel State Information (CSI)-assisted relaying or variable relaying gain based Amplifiy-and-Forward (AF) amplification. Partial relay selection with outdated CSI is assumed as a relay selection protocol based on the knowledge of the RF CSI. In order to derive the end-to-end Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR) statistics such as the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF), the Probability Density Function (PDF), the higher order moments, the amount of fading and the Moment Generating Function (MGF), the numerical values of the fading severity parameters are only valid for integer values. Based on these statistics, we derive closed-forms of the outage probability, the bit error probability, the ergodic capacity and the outage capacity in terms of Meijer-G, univariate, bivariate and trivariate Fox-H functions. Capitalizing on these expressions, we derive the asymptotic high SNR to unpack valuable engineering insights of the system performance. Monte Carlo simulation is used to confirm the analytical expressions
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