1,542 research outputs found

    Effect of skin color on optical properties and the implications for medical optical technologies: a review

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    Significance: Skin color affects light penetration leading to differences in its absorption and scattering properties. COVID-19 highlighted the importance of understanding of the interaction of light with different skin types, e.g., pulse oximetry (PO) unreliably determined oxygen saturation levels in people from Black and ethnic minority backgrounds. Furthermore, with increased use of other medical wearables using light to provide disease information and photodynamic therapies to treat skin cancers, a thorough understanding of the effect skin color has on light is important for reducing healthcare disparities.Aim: The aim of this work is to perform a thorough review on the effect of skin color on optical properties and the implication of variation on optical medical technologies.Approach: Published in vivo optical coefficients associated with different skin colors were collated and their effects on optical penetration depth and transport mean free path (TMFP) assessed.Results: Variation among reported values is significant. We show that absorption coefficients for dark skin are ∼6% to 74% greater than for light skin in the 400 to 1000 nm spectrum. Beyond 600 nm, the TMFP for light skin is greater than for dark skin. Maximum transmission for all skin types was beyond 940 nm in this spectrum. There are significant losses of light with increasing skin depth; in this spectrum, depending upon Fitzpatrick skin type (FST), on average 14% to 18% of light is lost by a depth of 0.1 mm compared with 90% to 97% of the remaining light being lost by a depth of 1.93 mm.Conclusions: Current published data suggest that at wavelengths beyond 940 nm light transmission is greatest for all FSTs. Data beyond 1000 nm are minimal and further study is required. It is possible that the amount of light transmitted through skin for all skin colors will converge with increasing wavelength enabling optical medical technologies to become independent of skin color

    Investigating the effectiveness of oral ketamine on pain, mood and quality of life in treatment resistant chronic pain

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    Introduction: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting longer than 3 months. This often causes persistent emotional distress and functional disability that is refractory to conventional treatments. Emerging evidence suggests that oral Ketamine therapy may have a specific role in managing treatment-resistant chronic pain. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of oral ketamine within a tertiary chronic pain management clinic. Methods: This study was a clinic-based retrospective descriptive study of 79 patients with a broad range of chronic pain diagnoses and treated with oral ketamine over a period up to 12 years. Changes in pain, mood and quality of life (QoL) were assessed using a numerical pain severity score, the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Public Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and American Chronic Pain Association Quality of Life (QoL) scale. Results: 73 patients were accessible for follow-up (mean daily dose and treatment duration were 193.84 mg and 22.6 months respectively). Pain scores decreased (p p Discussion: This work adds to the growing body of evidence that under the supervision of a pain specialist, oral ketamine therapy may be a safe, tolerable and effective treatment for chronic pain conditions which have not responded to other management options. Further research is required to produce a more accurate understanding of its chronic use. Key message: This real-world study shows that patients being treated with oral ketamine for chronic pain report decreased severity of pain, improved mood and increased quality of life across all conditions.</p

    Community level digital mental health interventions:A policy and practice brief

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    The prevalence of mental ill-health is increasing worldwide and brings adverse consequences at both the individual and societal level. Treatments and interventions for the symptoms that represent mental health conditions may target biological, behavioural and cognitive factors. Traditionally, treatments have included psychotropic medication, and/or psychological therapies which are delivered on a one to one or group basis. Both have a high economic cost, and efficacy varies. In addition, help seeking behaviour is impacted by stigma, symptom recognition &amp; understanding, and a host of factors associated with the disorders themselves, such as avoidance behaviour. The delivery of face-to-face interventions for those who are most marginalised and most at risk from mental ill-health, can also be impacted by barriers, such as knowledge of the services available and time, connectivity or travel constraints. The research presented here is co-produced with service providers, end users and academic experts across the disciplines of psychology, business, medicine, healthcare, interaction design and computer science. This briefing is based on the findings from our research programme on a community level digital mental health intervention.<br/

    Association between hematocrit and maximal oxygen uptake ().

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    Bubble plot and meta-regression displaying the positive association between hematocrit and both absolute (A) and relative (B). Data for males are represented as purple bubbles, data for females are represented as green bubbles with plus sign symbols, and data for studies presenting males and females pooled (mixed) are represented as black bubbles with middle dot symbols. Each bubble represents a group from a single study and the size of bubbles represents the number of participants within each group. The solid line indicates the meta-regression line, and the dashed lines indicate the 95% prediction interval associated with the meta-regression. (DOCX)</p

    The association between change in hemoglobin concentration and change in absolute maximal oxygen uptake () following blood donation or transfusion.

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    Meta-regression and bubble plot depicting the relationship between the change in hemoglobin concentration and the effect size of the change in absolute (standard paired difference) among independent subgroups following blood transfusion or donation. Different size symbols indicate relative weights used in the meta-regression and are proportional to study sample size.</p

    Investigating the effectiveness of oral ketamine on pain, mood and quality of life in treatment resistant chronic pain

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    IntroductionChronic pain is defined as pain lasting longer than 3 months. This often causes persistent emotional distress and functional disability that is refractory to conventional treatments. Emerging evidence suggests that oral Ketamine therapy may have a specific role in managing treatment-resistant chronic pain. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of oral ketamine within a tertiary chronic pain management clinic.MethodsThis study was a clinic-based retrospective descriptive study of 79 patients with a broad range of chronic pain diagnoses and treated with oral ketamine over a period up to 12 years. Changes in pain, mood and quality of life (QoL) were assessed using a numerical pain severity score, the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Public Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and American Chronic Pain Association Quality of Life (QoL) scale.Results73 patients were accessible for follow-up (mean daily dose and treatment duration were 193.84 mg and 22.6 months respectively). Pain scores decreased (p &lt; 0.0001) on both numerical scores (41.6% decrease) and BPI scoring (mean decrease 2.61). Mood improved (p &lt; 0.0001) across both PHQ-9 and BPI measurements. Patients also reported less difficulty with daily activities and improved QoL. The most common adverse reaction was drowsiness (21.9%), with 30.1% reporting no adverse reactions from Ketamine.DiscussionThis work adds to the growing body of evidence that under the supervision of a pain specialist, oral ketamine therapy may be a safe, tolerable and effective treatment for chronic pain conditions which have not responded to other management options. Further research is required to produce a more accurate understanding of its chronic use. Key messageThis real-world study shows that patients being treated with oral ketamine for chronic pain report decreased severity of pain, improved mood and increased quality of life across all conditions

    PRISMA flow diagram.

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    Flow diagram displaying the selection of articles through different phases of the systematic review, and categorization of included articles.</p

    Risk of bias among observational articles.

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    ObjectiveThere is widespread agreement about the key role of hemoglobin for oxygen transport. Both observational and interventional studies have examined the relationship between hemoglobin levels and maximal oxygen uptake () in humans. However, there exists considerable variability in the scientific literature regarding the potential relationship between hemoglobin and . Thus, we aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the diverse literature and examine the relationship between hemoglobin levels (hemoglobin concentration and mass) and (absolute and relative ) among both observational and interventional studies.MethodsA systematic search was performed on December 6th, 2021. The study procedures and reporting of findings followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Article selection and data abstraction were performed in duplicate by two independent reviewers. Primary outcomes were hemoglobin levels and values (absolute and relative). For observational studies, meta-regression models were performed to examine the relationship between hemoglobin levels and values. For interventional studies, meta-analysis models were performed to determine the change in values (standard paired difference) associated with interventions designed to modify hemoglobin levels or . Meta-regression models were then performed to determine the relationship between a change in hemoglobin levels and the change in values.ResultsData from 384 studies (226 observational studies and 158 interventional studies) were examined. For observational data, there was a positive association between absolute and hemoglobin levels (hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin mass, and hematocrit (PPP = 0.006)).ConclusionThese findings suggest that values are closely associated with hemoglobin levels among both observational and interventional studies. Although our findings suggest a lack of sex differences in these relationships, there were limited studies incorporating females or stratifying results by biological sex.</div

    Comparison of assembly platforms for the assembly of the nuclear genome of Trichoderma harzianum strain PAR3

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    Abstract Background Trichoderma is a diverse genus of fungi that includes several species that possess biotechnological and agricultural applications, including the biocontrol of pathogenic fungi and nematodes. The mitochondrial genome of a putative strain of Trichoderma harzianum called PAR3 was analyzed after isolation from the roots of Scarlet Royal grapevine scion grafted to Freedom rootstock, located in a grapevine vineyard in Parlier, CA, USA. Here, we report the sequencing, comparative assembly, and annotation of the nuclear genome of PAR3 and confirm its identification as a strain of T. harzianum. We subsequently compared the genes found in T. harzianum PAR3 to other known T. harzianum strains. Assembly of Illumina and/or Oxford Nanopore reads by the popular long-read assemblers, Flye and Canu, and the hybrid assemblers, SPAdes and MaSuRCA, was performed and the quality of the resulting assemblies were compared to ascertain which assembler generated the highest quality draft genome assembly. Results MaSuRCA produced the most complete and high-fidelity assembly yielding a nuclear genome of 40.7 Mb comprised of 112 scaffolds. Subsequent annotation of this assembly produced 12,074 gene models and 210 tRNAs. This included 221 genes that did not have equivalent genes in other T. harzainum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, rpb2, and tef1a sequences from PAR3 and established Trichoderma spp. showed that all three sequences from PAR3 possessed more than 99% identity to those of Trichoderma harzianum, confirming that PAR3 is an isolate of Trichoderma harzianum. We also found that comparison of gene models between T. harzianum PAR3 and other T. harzianum strains resulted in the identification of significant differences in gene type and number, with 221 unique genes identified in the PAR3 strain. Conclusions This study gives insight into the efficacy of several popular assembly platforms for assembly of fungal nuclear genomes, and found that the hybrid assembler, MaSuRCA, was the most effective program for genome assembly. The annotated draft nuclear genome and the identification of genes not found in other T. harzainum strains could be used to investigate the potential applications of T. harzianum PAR3 for biocontrol of grapevine fungal canker pathogens and as source of anti-microbial compounds

    Emerging practices and research issues for big data analytics in freight transportation

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    Freight transportation has been experiencing a renaissance in data sources, storage, and dissemination of data to decision makers in the last decades, resulting in new approaches to business and new research streams in analytics to support them. We provide an overview of developments in both practice and research related to big data analytics (BDA) in each of the major areas of freight transportation: air, ocean, rail, and truck. In each case, we first describe new capabilities in practice, and avenues of research given these evolving capabilities. New data sources, volumes and timeliness directly affect the way the industry operates, and how future researchers in these fields will structure their work. We discuss the evolving research agenda due to BDA and formulate fundamental research questions for each mode of freight transport
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