1,274 research outputs found

    Non-Profit Firms and the Provision of Durable Goods

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    A simple linear demand two-period durable goods is analyzed where the durable good is provided by private non-profit organization (NPO). A novel flexible objective function is utilized that allows for both the “commercial” and “social concern” aspects of NPOs. The model indicates NPO’s will not typically provide the efficient cost-minimizing durability in sales markets. Indeed, if the NPO cannot credibly commit to its own stakeholders it will manufacture output with less durability than a pure for-profit seller. We show the NPO’s level of commitment ability and social concern with its stakeholders is crucial for determining the amount of “planned obsolescence” that would prevail if NPOs expand into durable goods markets. Interestingly, the social concern commonly cited for the existence of NPOs, is a double edged sword since it may cause more or less product obsolescence.

    Vanishing Fe 3d orbital moments in single-crystalline magnetite

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    We show detailed magnetic absorption spectroscopy results of an in situ cleaved high quality single crystal of magnetite. In addition the experimental setup was carefully optimized to reduce drift, self absorption, and offset phenomena as far as possible. In strong contradiction to recently published data, our observed orbital moments are nearly vanishing and the spin moments are quite close to the integer values proposed by theory. This very important issue supports the half metallic full spin polarized picture of magnetite.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

    Induced magnetism of carbon atoms at the graphene/Ni(111) interface

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    We report an element-specific investigation of electronic and magnetic properties of the graphene/Ni(111) system. Using magnetic circular dichroism, the occurrence of an induced magnetic moment of the carbon atoms in the graphene layer aligned parallel to the Ni 3d magnetization is observed. We attribute this magnetic moment to the strong hybridization between C π\pi and Ni 3d valence band states. The net magnetic moment of carbon in the graphene layer is estimated to be in the range of 0.050.1μB0.05-0.1 \mu_B per atom.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figure

    Repeated Recovery of Staphylococcus saprophyticus From the Urogenital Tracts of Women: Persistence Vs. Recurrence

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    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether colonization was persistent or recurrent in a small group of women who had repeated recovery of Staphylococcus saprophyticus from their urogenital tracts

    Dual HLA B*42 and B*81-reactive T cell receptors recognize more diverse HIV-1 Gag escape variants

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    Closely related HLA alleles presenting similar HIV-1 epitopes can be associated with variable clinical outcome. Here the authors report their findings on CD8+ T cell responses to the HIV-1 Gag-p24 TL9 immunodominant epitope in the context of closely related protective and less protective HLA alleles, and their differential effect on viral contro

    Magnetic coupling in highly-ordered NiO/Fe3O4(110): Ultrasharp magnetic interfaces vs. long-range magnetoelastic interactions

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    We present a laterally resolved X-ray magnetic dichroism study of the magnetic proximity effect in a highly ordered oxide system, i.e. NiO films on Fe3O4(110). We found that the magnetic interface shows an ultrasharp electronic, magnetic and structural transition from the ferrimagnet to the antiferromagnet. The monolayer which forms the interface reconstructs to NiFe2O4 and exhibits an enhanced Fe and Ni orbital moment, possibly caused by bonding anisotropy or electronic interaction between Fe and Ni cations. The absence of spin-flop coupling for this crystallographic orientation can be explained by a structurally uncompensated interface and additional magnetoelastic effects

    Assembly induced delaminations in composite structures

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    Experimental and analytical studies of the development of delaminations around fastener holes in composite structures are presented. This type of delamination is known to occur in composite skins that are mechanically fastened to a poorly mating substructure. Results of an experimental study to determine the resistance of laminates to the initiation of assembly induced delaminations and the residual strength of assembly damaged coupons are presented for AS4/3501-6, IM7/8551-7A, and AS4/PEEK material systems. A survey of existing analytical models for predicting the residual strength and stability of delaminations is presented, and the development of a new model for predicting the initiation of delaminations around a fastener hole is outlined. The fastener hole damage initiation model utilizes a finite element based Fourier series solution, and is validated through comparisons of analytical and experimental results

    Fiscal austerity and rental housing policy in the US and UK, 2010-2016

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    The purpose of this paper is to compare the dynamics and initial impacts of austerity in the US and the UK (notably England) on affordable rental housing programs and housing support for low income tenants. The focus is upon budget retrenchment decisions made in the US and the UK from 2010 to 2016. The manner in which these cuts occurred, their volatility, and their effects are what drives this analysis. We seek to learn whether there have been fiscally comparable adjustments and volatility in budget decisions in the quite different contexts of the two countries and if so whether this can help us better understand the drivers and effects of change..

    Strain and composition dependence of the orbital polarization in nickelate superlattices

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    A combined analysis of x-ray absorption and resonant reflectivity data was used to obtain the orbital polarization profiles of superlattices composed of four-unit-cell-thick layers of metallic LaNiO3 and layers of insulating RXO3 (R=La, Gd, Dy and X=Al, Ga, Sc), grown on substrates that impose either compressive or tensile strain. This superlattice geometry allowed us to partly separate the influence of epitaxial strain from interfacial effects controlled by the chemical composition of the insulating blocking layers. Our quantitative analysis reveal orbital polarizations up to 25%. We further show that strain is the most effective control parameter, whereas the influence of the chemical composition of the blocking layers is comparatively small.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figure