11 research outputs found

    Analysis of expression differences by MS analysis.

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    <p><b>A</b>) ESI mass spectrum of the <sup>14</sup>N LAB (red) and <sup>15</sup>N HAB (blue) isotope forms of the GLO1 peptide GFGHIGIAVPDVYSACK in cerebellar tissue. The isotopologue patterns of the <sup>14</sup>N and <sup>15</sup>N peptide signals (m/z) were used for relative quantification with ProRata. <b>B</b>) Extracted ion chromatograms for the GLO1 peptide, extracted from A, showing an upregulation of GLO1 in LAB mice. No smoothing was applied.</p

    Incorporation rate of <sup>15</sup>N in (A) plasma and (B) brain proteins.

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    <p>In 5, 14 and 28 day old animals (PND 5, 14, 28) bacteria diet feeding provides a significantly higher incorporation of <sup>15</sup>N in plasma proteins compared to blue-green algae diet; only at the age of 56 days, blue-green algae fed diet animals show the same <sup>15</sup>N incorporation. In the cerebellum, a faster incorporation in adolescence at PND 14 reached significance (**p<0.01; *p<0.05).</p

    Depression-like behavior in the tail suspension test (TST).

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    <p>High (HAB), normal (NAB) and low (LAB) anxious animals were fed with <sup>14</sup>N and/or <sup>15</sup>N enriched bacteria diets. <b>A</b>) No behavioral changes due to diet <i>per se</i> were found for animals fed with bacteria diet compared to the animals of the respective lines of the HAB/NAB/LAB standard breeding of the same generation (dotted lines and indicated in <b>B</b>) as percentage difference of the standard breeding). However, <sup>15</sup>N fed HAB animals showed a strongly reduced immobility, indicating depression-like behavior, compared to <sup>14</sup>N fed HABs (**p<0.01). B) This differed significantly from the standard HAB/NAB/LAB breeding (*p<0.05). Due to division by zero, no value is given for <sup>14</sup>N fed LAB animals in relation to the standard breeding: values are <sup>14</sup>N LAB 0.53┬▒0.3 sec vs. standard LAB 4.06┬▒1.5 sec.</p

    Depression-like behavior of HAB animals in the tail suspension test (TST).

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    <p>Animals fed with blue-green algae diet hat a strongly reduced immobility, indicating depression-like behavior, compared to standard fed animals. This effect was even more pronounced in animals fed with the <sup>15</sup>N isotope (*p<0.05; **p<0.01).</p

    Analysis of expression differences by MS analysis and RT-PCR.

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    <p><b>A</b>) ESI mass spectrum of the <sup>14</sup>N LAB (red) and <sup>15</sup>N HAB (blue) isotope forms of the Hint2 peptide ISQAEEDDQQLLGHLLLVAK in cerebellar tissue. The isotopologue patterns of the <sup>14</sup>N and <sup>15</sup>N peptide signals (m/z) were used for relative quantification with ProRata. <b>B</b>) Extracted ion chromatograms for the Hint2 peptide, extracted from A, showing an upregulation of Hint2 in HAB mice. <b>C</b>) Analysis of Hint2 transcripts in <sup>15</sup>N-labeled HAB and <sup>14</sup>N LAB cerebellar cDNA by RT-PCR, normalized by HRSP12 expression. Hint2 expression in HABs was 2.5-fold higher compared to LABs (*p<0.05). No smoothing was applied.</p

    Food consumption of algae and bacteria diets of HAB/NAB/LAB dams and pups before weaning.

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    <p>Consumption of blue-green algae diet of HAB dams and their pups and consumption of bacteria diet of HAB/NAB/LAB dams and their pups before weaning (post natal days (PND) 1ÔÇô24); <sup>14</sup>N diet 14N; <sup>15</sup>N-enriched diet.</p

    Body weight after weaning of animals fed with bacteria, blue-green algae and standard diet.

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    <p>Compared to standard fed HAB animals (orange dotted line), blue-green algae diet fed animals were significantly heavier (green line) and bacteria fed animals lighter (red line) (**p<0.01 blue-green algae vs. control ++p<0.01 bacteria vs. control).</p

    Anxiety-related behavior and locomotion on the elevated plus maze (EPM).

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    <p>High (HAB), normal (NAB) and low (LAB) anxious animals were fed with <sup>14</sup>N or <sup>15</sup>N enriched bacteria diets. <b>A</b>) HAB, NAB and LAB mice showed the significant (not indicated) phenotypic divergence typical of animals of the standard breeding (dotted lines and indicated in <b>B</b>) as percentage difference of the standard breeding).</p
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