138 research outputs found

    To Share or Not to Share in Client-Side Encrypted Clouds

    Full text link
    With the advent of cloud computing, a number of cloud providers have arisen to provide Storage-as-a-Service (SaaS) offerings to both regular consumers and business organizations. SaaS (different than Software-as-a-Service in this context) refers to an architectural model in which a cloud provider provides digital storage on their own infrastructure. Three models exist amongst SaaS providers for protecting the confidentiality data stored in the cloud: 1) no encryption (data is stored in plain text), 2) server-side encryption (data is encrypted once uploaded), and 3) client-side encryption (data is encrypted prior to upload). This paper seeks to identify weaknesses in the third model, as it claims to offer 100% user data confidentiality throughout all data transactions (e.g., upload, download, sharing) through a combination of Network Traffic Analysis, Source Code Decompilation, and Source Code Disassembly. The weaknesses we uncovered primarily center around the fact that the cloud providers we evaluated were each operating in a Certificate Authority capacity to facilitate data sharing. In this capacity, they assume the role of both certificate issuer and certificate authorizer as denoted in a Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI) scheme - which gives them the ability to view user data contradicting their claims of 100% data confidentiality. We have collated our analysis and findings in this paper and explore some potential solutions to address these weaknesses in these sharing methods. The solutions proposed are a combination of best practices associated with the use of PKI and other cryptographic primitives generally accepted for protecting the confidentiality of shared information

    Interpretable Probabilistic Password Strength Meters via Deep Learning

    Full text link
    Probabilistic password strength meters have been proved to be the most accurate tools to measure password strength. Unfortunately, by construction, they are limited to solely produce an opaque security estimation that fails to fully support the user during the password composition. In the present work, we move the first steps towards cracking the intelligibility barrier of this compelling class of meters. We show that probabilistic password meters inherently own the capability of describing the latent relation occurring between password strength and password structure. In our approach, the security contribution of each character composing a password is disentangled and used to provide explicit fine-grained feedback for the user. Furthermore, unlike existing heuristic constructions, our method is free from any human bias, and, more importantly, its feedback has a clear probabilistic interpretation. In our contribution: (1) we formulate the theoretical foundations of interpretable probabilistic password strength meters; (2) we describe how they can be implemented via an efficient and lightweight deep learning framework suitable for client-side operability.Comment: An abridged version of this paper appears in the proceedings of the 25th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security (ESORICS) 202

    Deep Models Under the GAN: Information Leakage from Collaborative Deep Learning

    Full text link
    Deep Learning has recently become hugely popular in machine learning, providing significant improvements in classification accuracy in the presence of highly-structured and large databases. Researchers have also considered privacy implications of deep learning. Models are typically trained in a centralized manner with all the data being processed by the same training algorithm. If the data is a collection of users' private data, including habits, personal pictures, geographical positions, interests, and more, the centralized server will have access to sensitive information that could potentially be mishandled. To tackle this problem, collaborative deep learning models have recently been proposed where parties locally train their deep learning structures and only share a subset of the parameters in the attempt to keep their respective training sets private. Parameters can also be obfuscated via differential privacy (DP) to make information extraction even more challenging, as proposed by Shokri and Shmatikov at CCS'15. Unfortunately, we show that any privacy-preserving collaborative deep learning is susceptible to a powerful attack that we devise in this paper. In particular, we show that a distributed, federated, or decentralized deep learning approach is fundamentally broken and does not protect the training sets of honest participants. The attack we developed exploits the real-time nature of the learning process that allows the adversary to train a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) that generates prototypical samples of the targeted training set that was meant to be private (the samples generated by the GAN are intended to come from the same distribution as the training data). Interestingly, we show that record-level DP applied to the shared parameters of the model, as suggested in previous work, is ineffective (i.e., record-level DP is not designed to address our attack).Comment: ACM CCS'17, 16 pages, 18 figure

    Entangled cloud storage

    Get PDF
    Entangled cloud storage (Aspnes et al., ESORICS 2004) enables a set of clients to “entangle” their files into a single clew to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files encoded in the clew. A clew keeps the files in it private but still lets each client recover his own data by interacting with the cloud provider; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of the clew as this will imply that none of the clients can recover their files. We put forward the first simulation-based security definition for entangled cloud storage, in the framework of universal composability (Canetti, 2001). We then construct a protocol satisfying our security definition, relying on an entangled encoding scheme based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation; entangled encodings were originally proposed by Aspnes et al. as useful tools for the purpose of data entanglement. As a contribution of independent interest we revisit the security notions for entangled encodings, putting forward stronger definitions than previous work (that for instance did not consider collusion between clients and the cloud provider). Protocols for entangled cloud storage find application in the cloud setting, where clients store their files on a remote server and need to be ensured that the cloud provider will not modify or delete their data illegitimately. Current solutions, e.g., based on Provable Data Possession and Proof of Retrievability, require the server to be challenged regularly to provide evidence that the clients’ files are stored at a given time. Entangled cloud storage provides an alternative approach where any single client operates implicitly on behalf of all others, i.e., as long as one client's files are intact, the entire remote database continues to be safe and unblemishe

    Recent advances in security and privacy in big data

    Get PDF
    Big data has become an important topic in science, engineering, medicine, healthcare, finance, business and ultimately society itself. Big data refers to the massive amount of digital information stored or transmitted in computer systems. Approximately, 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are created every day. Almost 90% of data in the world today are created in the last two years alone. Security and privacy issues becomes more critical due to large volumes and variety, due to data hosted in large-scale cloud infrastructures, diversity of data sources and formats, streaming nature of data acquisition and high volume inter-cloud migration. In large-scale cloud infrastructures, a diversity of software platforms provides more opportunities to attackers. Traditional security mechanisms, which are usually invented for securing small-scale data, are inadequate. With a rapid growth of big data applications, it has become critical to introduce new security technology to accommodate the need of big data applications. The objective of this special issue is to capture the latest advances in this research field

    Universal Neural-Cracking-Machines: Self-Configurable Password Models from Auxiliary Data

    Full text link
    We develop the first universal password model -- a password model that, once pre-trained, can automatically adapt to any password distribution. To achieve this result, the model does not need to access any plaintext passwords from the target set. Instead, it exploits users' auxiliary information, such as email addresses, as a proxy signal to predict the underlying target password distribution. The model uses deep learning to capture the correlation between the auxiliary data of a group of users (e.g., users of a web application) and their passwords. It then exploits those patterns to create a tailored password model for the target community at inference time. No further training steps, targeted data collection, or prior knowledge of the community's password distribution is required. Besides defining a new state-of-the-art for password strength estimation, our model enables any end-user (e.g., system administrators) to autonomously generate tailored password models for their systems without the often unworkable requirement of collecting suitable training data and fitting the underlying password model. Ultimately, our framework enables the democratization of well-calibrated password models to the community, addressing a major challenge in the deployment of password security solutions on a large scale.Comment: v0.0

    No Place to Hide that Bytes won't Reveal: Sniffing Location-Based Encrypted Traffic to Track a User's Position

    Full text link
    News reports of the last few years indicated that several intelligence agencies are able to monitor large networks or entire portions of the Internet backbone. Such a powerful adversary has only recently been considered by the academic literature. In this paper, we propose a new adversary model for Location Based Services (LBSs). The model takes into account an unauthorized third party, different from the LBS provider itself, that wants to infer the location and monitor the movements of a LBS user. We show that such an adversary can extrapolate the position of a target user by just analyzing the size and the timing of the encrypted traffic exchanged between that user and the LBS provider. We performed a thorough analysis of a widely deployed location based app that comes pre-installed with many Android devices: GoogleNow. The results are encouraging and highlight the importance of devising more effective countermeasures against powerful adversaries to preserve the privacy of LBS users.Comment: 14 pages, 9th International Conference on Network and System Security (NSS 2015

    No NAT'd User left Behind: Fingerprinting Users behind NAT from NetFlow Records alone

    Full text link
    It is generally recognized that the traffic generated by an individual connected to a network acts as his biometric signature. Several tools exploit this fact to fingerprint and monitor users. Often, though, these tools assume to access the entire traffic, including IP addresses and payloads. This is not feasible on the grounds that both performance and privacy would be negatively affected. In reality, most ISPs convert user traffic into NetFlow records for a concise representation that does not include, for instance, any payloads. More importantly, large and distributed networks are usually NAT'd, thus a few IP addresses may be associated to thousands of users. We devised a new fingerprinting framework that overcomes these hurdles. Our system is able to analyze a huge amount of network traffic represented as NetFlows, with the intent to track people. It does so by accurately inferring when users are connected to the network and which IP addresses they are using, even though thousands of users are hidden behind NAT. Our prototype implementation was deployed and tested within an existing large metropolitan WiFi network serving about 200,000 users, with an average load of more than 1,000 users simultaneously connected behind 2 NAT'd IP addresses only. Our solution turned out to be very effective, with an accuracy greater than 90%. We also devised new tools and refined existing ones that may be applied to other contexts related to NetFlow analysis
    • …