22 research outputs found

    EFFECTS OF DIETARY PYRIDOXINE LEVELS ON GROWTH AND VITAMIN B6 PROFILE OF JUVENILE KURUMA PRAWN, Penaeus japonicus

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    The effects of dietary pyridoxine levels (0, 5, 15. and 25mg/100g diet) on growth andvitamin 86 profile of' juvenile Penaeus japonicus (0.69 + 0.03g; mean + sd) wereinvestigated during 8 weeks of f'eeding experiments

    EFFECT OF DIETARY CASSAVA MEAL ON GROWTH OF MUD CRAB, Scylla paramamosain

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    It is widely recognized that a major constraint to development of a mud crabaquaculture industry is the availability and formulation nutritionally adequate but relatively low cost diets. Development of artificial diets, which seek to minimize inclusion of expensive feed ingredients such as fish and terrestrial meals, is considered to be a priority for improving the profitability of this emerging industry. Typically, carbohydrates such as starches are relatively cheap and therefore offer opportunity to supply dietary energy at low cost. The study examines the capacity of mud crab, Scylla paramamosain to utilize a range of dietary cassava meal as carbohydrate source. Four levels of cassava meal were used at inclusion levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% in diets. Mud crabs will readily accept the diet containing relatively high levels of cassava meal. This experiment proved that mud crab which fed 10% dietary cassava meal gains weight more than the one fed diet without dietary cassava meal. The increasing level of cassava meal to more than10% in diet reduced final weight and weight gain. To some extent, mud crab, Scylla paramamosain is capable to use dietary carbohydrate from cassava meal. The finding raises the possibility to include 10% cassava meal in formulation low cost diet for mud crab

    THE EFFECT OF VITAMIN C (L-ASCORBYL MONOPHOSPHATE-Mg) ON THE DEFORMITY PERFORMANCE OF HUMPBACK GROUPER (Cromileptes altivelis) LARVAE

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    This study was aimed to get a standard protocol for vitamin C application in enrichment of Artemia nauplii and to examine the impact of vitamin C on humpback grouper larval deformity performance. Vitamin C in the form of L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Mg (AMP-Mg) was used for the enrichment and incorporated into Artemia nauplii at a given level of 0-1.5 g/L with enrichment period of 4, 6, and 24 hours for each level. The effect of AMP on larval deformity was tested using the following treatments: unenriched both Artemia nauplii and commercial diet, un-enriched Artemia nauplii and experimental diet containing 2.5 g AMP-Mg/kg diet, enriched Artemia nauplii obtained from the protocol and commercial larval diet. Analysis of vitamin C content in Artemia nauplii was carried out using HPLC and larval deformities were observed using staining method, visual examination, or X-ray depending on larval age. The results showed that the best enrichment method of AMP in Artemia nauplii is achieved at the dose of 0.9 g/L for 6 h. The lowest percentage of abnormalities was found in larvae fed with enriched Artemia nauplii and commercial diets, suggesting that vitamin C has an important role in controlling larval deformities

    RESPONS PERTUMBUHAN DAN AKTIVITAS ENZIM AMILASE BENIH IKAN BANDENG (Chanos chanos Forsskal) YANG DIBERI PAKAN DENGAN KANDUNGAN KARBOHIDRAT YANG BERBEDA

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    Karbohidrat dalam pakan memiliki peranan penting untuk menunjang pertumbuhan ikan bandeng sehingga perlu diketahui kandungan yang optimal. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kandungan dektrin sebagai sumber karbohidrat dalam pakan terhadap laju pertumbuhan, efisiensi pakan, dan aktivitas enzim amilase ikan bandeng. Pakan percobaan mempunyai kandungan karbohidrat berbeda yaitu 3,4%; 12,4%; 21,4%; 30,4%; 39,4%; dan pakan dibuat dalam bentuk pelet kering dengan diameter 2,1-3,1 mm. Ikan uji yang digunakan yaitu benih ikan bandeng berbobot 1,5 ± 0,5 g dengan panjang total 8,0 ± 0,5 cm, ditebar dengan kepadatan 20 ekor/bak. Wadah yang digunakan berupa 15 bak polikarbonat bervolume 400 liter dan dilengkapi aerasi dengan sistem air mengalir. Percobaan dirancang dengan rancangan acak lengkap, lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Parameter yang diamati adalah laju pertumbuhan, efisiensi pakan, dan aktivitas enzim amilase. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara statistik dengan menggunakan analisis keragaman (ANOVA). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kandungan karbohidrat dalam pakan berpengaruh terhadap laju pertumbuhan, efisiensi pakan, dan aktivitas enzim amilase benih ikan bandeng (P<0,05). Pakan dengan karbohidrat 30,4% optimal untuk mendukung laju pertumbuhan (0,364 g/hari), efisiensi pakan (110,69%), dan aktivitas enzim amilase diperoleh sebesar 2,614 unit/menit.mL pada lambung dan 2,605 unit/menit.mL pada usus benih ikan bandeng.Carbohydrates in commercial diets for milkfish fry have an important role in supporting the growth of the fish. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of different dectrine contents in feed as a source of carbohydrate on the growth response, feed efficiency, and amylase enzyme activity of milkfish fry. The experimental feed was formulated in form of 2.1 – 3.1 mm diameter of dry pellets containing different carbohydrate contents, namely 3.4%, 12.4%, 21.4%, 30.4%, 39.4%. The fish used was milkfish fry with an average weight of 1.5 ± 0.5 g and length of 8.0 ± 0.5 cm and stocked with a density of 20 fish/tank. The experiment used 15 polycarbonate tanks filled with 400 liters of seawater and aerated with a flowing water system. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The parameters observed were growth rate, feed efficiency, and amylase enzyme activity. The results showed that carbohydrate differences in the diets affected the growth rate, feed efficiency, and amylase enzyme activity of milkfish fry. The diet with 30.4% carbohydrate content produced the optimum finfish fry growth rate (0.364 g/day), and feed efficiency (110.69%). The measured amylase enzyme activity was 2.614 units/minute mL in the stomach and 2,605 units/minute.mL in the intestine milkfish fry.

    OPTIMALISASI PEMELIHARAAN YUWANA ABALON ( H. squamata) DENGAN KEPADATAN DAN JENIS PAKAN YANG BERBEDA

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    Optimalisasi pemeliharaan yuwana abalon telah dilakukan dengan tiga berbeda kepadatan dan memanfaatkan tiga jenis rumput laut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh teknik pemeliharaan yuwana abalon H. squamata yang efisien dan aplikatif melalui kepadatan dan jenis pakan yang berbeda. Digunakan yuwana abalon dengan ukuran panjang cangkang awal 7,8-10,1 mm; kepadatan yuwana awal yaitu 500, 250, dan 125 ekor/keranjang, dan jenis pakan yang berbeda yaitu Ulva sp., Gracilaria sp. asal laut, dan Gracilaria sp. asal tambak. Hasil yang dicapai pada akhir penelitian menunjukkan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05) terhadap pertumbuhan panjang cangkang, di mana pada perlakuan (A) 500 ekor + Gracilaria asal tambak sebesar 15,07±3,08 mm; (B) 500 ekor + Ulva sebesar 13,58±2,65 mm; (C) 500 ekor + Gracilaria asal laut sebesar 13,27±2,75 mm; (D) 250 ekor + Gracilaria asal tambak sebesar 17,17±3,29 mm; (E) 250 ekor + Ulva sebesar 16,44±2,90 mm; (F) 250 ekor + Gracilaria asal laut sebesar 16,08±3,21mm; (G) 125 ekor + Gracilaria asal tambak sebesar 17,94±2,49 mm; (H) 125 ekor + Ulva sebesar 18,65±2,72 mm; (I) 125 ekor + Gracilaria asal laut 17,87±3,16 mm. Sintasan yuwana abalon pada akhir penelitian berkisar antara 84% sampai 99%

    GROW-OUT OF ABALONE Haliotis squamata IN FLOATING CAGES FED DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF SEAWEED AND WITH REDUCTION OF STOCKING DENSITY

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    Abalone is a herbivore marine animal which feeds on seaweed. Abalone culture has a good prospect in terms of price, market share and simple culture technique. Thus, a study was conducted with the aim of finding out an effective and efficient abalone culture technique in terms of feed use and density. In this study, a 42 cm diameter plastic container with a 22 cm height was used. Three vertically arranged containers were used as the experimental group which were put into a net box and hung onto a raft so that the containers were placed in a 4 m depth below the sea surface. The juvenile of abalones being used came from a hatchery production that has been adapted to cages environment with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. feed. The initial density of abalones was 450 for each container, with the initial weight of 2.6-3.2 g and the 2.5-2.7 cm shell lengths. The abalones were fed with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. seaweeds with different Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportions, i.e. 100/0% (A); 80/20% (B); and 60/40% (C) as the treatments. Each treatment consisted of two replications. After three months of rearing period, densities of abalones were reduced to be 190 for each experimental unit. Weight and shell length of abalones were measured every month by measuring 25 abalone samples from each experimental unit. The result of the experiment showed that the increase in the Ulva sp. proportion in the feed increased the growth of abalones and decreased the feed conversion. Feeding with Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportion of 60%/40% allowed the best growth of abalones. The decrease of abalone density in the experimental unit after three months of rearing also produced an increase in their growth

    KANDUNGAN ASAM AMINO LISIN OPTIMAL DALAM PAKAN UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN BENIH IKAN KERAPU SUNU, Plectropomus leopardus

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    Kerapu sunu merupakan salah satu kerapu yang mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi. Ketersediaan pakan buatan merupakan salah satu kendala pada pengembangan budidaya kerapu di samping ketersediaan benih. Informasi kebutuhan protein dan lemak optimum, energi, asam lemak, dan vitamin telah dimanfaatkan sebagai dasar untuk pengembangan pakan buatan untuk kerapu. Namun demikian, informasi kebutuhan asam amino untuk kerapu masih terbatas sekali. Untuk itu, telah dilakukan riset untuk mengetahui kandungan asam amino lisin optimal dalam pakan untuk pertumbuhan kerapu sunu. Percobaan dilakukan dalam 18 buah bak polikarbonat volume 30 L yang dilengkapi dengan sistem air mengalir. Setiap bak diisi 12 ekor benih kerapu sunu yang berasal dari hatcheri dengan bobot awal 17,6 ± 3,1g. Ikan diberi pakan percobaan dua kali sehari pada level satiasi selama 84 hari. Enam pakan percobaan dibuat berupa pelet kering dengan kandungan protein 45% dan mempunyai kandungan lisin berbeda, yaitu 1,71%; 2,21%; 2,71%; 3,21%; 3,71% dan 4,21%. Pakan percobaan mempunyai komposisi asam amino yang sama kecuali kandungan lisinnya. Percobaan dirancang menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 6 perlakuan beda level lisin dan tiap perlakuan terdiri atas 3 ulangan. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan level lisin dalam pakan berpengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan dan sintasan kerapu sunu. Berdasarkan data pertambahan bobot ikan diperoleh bahwa kandungan lisin optimal dalam pakan untuk pertumbuhan kerapu sunu adalah 2,84%.Coral trout grouper is one among the most expensive species of grouper. The availability of a practical diet for grouper is still a major constraint to grow-out production besides of good quality of seed. Information regarding the optimum dietary protein and lipid levels, energy, essential fatty acids and vitamin requirements has been used to develop diet for grouper. However, very limited information is available on amino acid requirement for grouper. The objective of the study was to find out optimum lysine content in diet for growth of juvenile of coral trout grouper. A 84-day feeding experiment was conducted in 18 polycarbonate tanks of 30 L volume. Each tank was equipped with flow-through water system. Twelve hatchery_produced juveniles of coral trout grouper (17.6 ± 3.1 g BW) were stocked in each tank. Fish fed experimental diets twice everyday at satiation level. Six experimental diets with different lysine level of 1.71%, 2.21%, 2.71%, 3.21%, 3.71%, and 4.21% were prepared in form of dry pellet. All diets have the same protein level of 45% and the same amino acid composition to the amino acid composition of whole body protein of coral trout grouper, except for its lysine content. The experiment was designed based on completely random design with 6 treatments and 3 replications for each treatment. Result of the experiment showed that dietary lysine levels had significant effect on growth and survival of juvenile of coral trout grouper. Optimum dietary lysine requirement was calculated using orthogonal polynomial regression analysis. Based on weight gain data of indicates that the optimum lysine level in diet for growth of juvenile of coral trout is 2.84%

    FORMULASI DAN APLIKASI PAKAN BUATAN BERBASIS RUMPUT LAUT UNTUK PENDEDERAN BENIH TERIPANG PASIR (Holothuria scabra)

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    Teripang merupakan salah satu komoditas perikanan penting dan mempunyai nilai ekonomi yang tinggi di Asia. Teknologi pembenihan teripang sudah mulai dikembangkan dan telah mampu memproduksi benih secara massal untuk budidaya. Pakan merupakan salah satu faktor yang sangat menentukan keberhasilan budidaya teripang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi beberapa formula pakan berbasis rumput laut untuk pendederan teripang pasir. Empat pakan percobaan diformulasi menggunakan kombinasi beberapa jenis bahan baku, khususnya rumput laut. Pakan dibuat dalam bentuk pelet dengan kandungan protein 14% dan lemak 4,5%. Kontrol adalah pakan berupa bentos segar. Benih teripang pasir yang digunakan berukuran bobot 2,0 ± 0,6 g dengan panjang 2,8 ± 0,5 cm. Benih teripang dipelihara dalam bak persegi berkapasitas 150 L dengan kepadatan 50 ekor per bak. Benih teripang diberi pakan percobaan sekali dalam sehari pada sore hari. Percobaan dirancang dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap terdiri atas lima perlakuan pakan dan empat ulangan. Percobaan berlangsung selama 120 hari. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa benih teripang pasir yang diberi pakan buatan menghasilkan pertumbuhan (pertambahan bobot 341,3%-386,8%) dan sintasan (92,5%-97,5%) lebih tinggi dan berbeda nyata (P<0,05) dibandingkan dengan yang diberi pakan bentos (kontrol), yaitu masing-masing 126,9% dan 75,0% untuk pertambahan bobot dan sintasan. Namun pertumbuhan benih teripang pada semua perlakuan pakan buatan tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05). Kandungan protein teripang yang diberi pakan buatan (22,3%-24,4%) lebih tinggi (P<0,05) dibandingkan dengan yang diberi pakan kontrol (18,4%). Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa benih teripang pasir dapat memanfaatkan pakan buatan dengan baik dan pakan berbasis tepung Sargassum sp. dapat diaplikasikan pada pemeliharaan benih teripang pasir.Sea cucumber is one of the important fishery commodities and has high economic value in Asia. Technology for seed production of sea cucumber has been developed and able to produce juveniles for supporting sea cucumber farming. Feed is an important factor that largely determines the success of sea cucumber farming. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate several feed formulas based on seaweed powder for good growth performance of sea cucumber juveniles. Four experimental feeds were prepared by using a combination of several different raw materials, especially for the seaweed. The experimental feeds were prepared in pelleted form with protein and lipid content of 14% and 4.5%, respectively. Fresh benthos was used as the control feed. Juveniles of sea cucumber from hatchery with average weight of 2.0 ± 0.6 g and total length of 2.8 ± 0.5 cm were distributed into 20 of 150 L polycarbonate tanks, with a density of 50 juveniles per tank. Sea cucumber were fed the experimental feeds once a day in the afternoon for 120 days. The experiment was designed with Completely Randomized Design, with five dietary treatments and four replications. Results of the experiment showed that juvenile sea cucumber fed the artificial feeds produced significantly higher (P<0.05) growth (weight gain 341.3%-386.8%) and survival (92.5%-97.5%) than that of the control which were 126.9% and 75.0% for weight gain and survival, respectively. However, growth of juveniles among the artificial feed treatments was not significantly different (P>0.05). Protein content of sea cucumber fed the artificial feeds was significantly higher (22.3%-24.4%) (P<0.05) than that of the control (18.4%). Results of this study indicated that juveniles of sea cucumber could utilize artificial feed properly and Sargassum sp. based diet could be applied for nursery of sea cucumber juveniles

    The impact of fresh and artificial diet on growth and survival rate of spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus reared in floating net cage

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    Some research found that the growth of lobster was higher when fed with fresh diet than artificial diet. Therefore, the growth of lobster that is fed with combination of fresh and artificial diets need to be observed. This study aimed to evaluate different kinds of feed and its combination on growth and survival rate of spiny lobster Panulirus homarus. This research was designed with three treatments and three replicates, namely: lobster fed with fresh diet (A), lobster fed with artificial diet (dry pellet) (B), and lobster fed with combination of fresh and artificial diets (C). Lobsters with an average weight 100.30 ±0.79 g were reared in floating net cage with dimension 2×2×2 m3 at density 40 lobsters/cage. Lobsters were fed twice a day at 08.30 am and 03.30 pm. Fresh diets that were given contained fresh fish, shrimp, crabs and mussels (3:1:1:1). The observation was conducted for 18 weeks. Results of the experiment were lobsters fed with fresh diets (A) and combination of fresh and artificial diets (C) gave higher specific growth rate (0.62±0.03 %/day and 0.61±0.03 %/day) than lobster fed with artificial diets (B) (0.33±0.01 %/day). There were not significantly differences in survival rate of lobster (p<0.05)

    PERTUMBUHAN TERIPANG PASIR Holothuria scabra YANG DIPELIHARA DALAM BAK DAN KARAMBA JARING APUNG DI TAMBAK DENGAN APLIKASI BEBERAPA FORMULASI PAKAN BUATAN

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    Teripang pasir, Holothuria scabra merupakan salah satu komoditas perikanan yang mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi di Asia. Populasinya di alam semakin menurun karena aktivitas penangkapan secara berlebihan. Untuk mengantisipasi menurunnya stok teripang di alam, maka perlu segera dilakukan pengembangannya melalui kegiatan budidaya. Di samping ketersediaan benih, pakan merupakan salah satu faktor yang sangat menentukan keberhasilan budidaya teripang. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan formulasi pakan buatan yang tepat untuk mendukung pertumbuhan teripang pasir. Empat pakan percobaan dengan formula berbeda, sebagai perlakuan, dibuat dalam bentuk pelet kering. Pakan diformulasi menggunakan tepung Sargassum sp., tepung Ulva sp., tepung Gracilaria sp., yang dikombinasi dengan tepung kedelai dan tepung beras dengan proporsi berbeda. Pada percobaan-1, benih teripang (hasil pembenihan) ukuran 14,4 ± 6,5 g ditebar dalam delapan buah bak berukuran 2 m x 1 m x 0,6 m dengan kepadatan 100 ekor/bak. Teripang diberi pakan percobaan dengan frekuensi satu kali sehari selama lima bulan. Pada percobaan-2, benih teripang ukuran 7,0 ± 1,6 g ditebar dalam delapan buah keramba jaring apung berukuran 1 m x 1 m x 1 m yang diletakkan di tambak dengan kepadatan 50 ekor per jaring. Teripang diberi pakan percobaan dengan frekuensi satu kali sehari selama empat bulan. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan pakan buatan yang diformulasi menggunakan tepung Sargassum sp., tepung Ulva sp., tepung kedelai, dan tepung beras dapat mendukung pertumbuhan dan sintasan teripang pasir, baik yang dipelihara dalam bak maupun dalam jaring apung di tambak. Sintasan teripang tidak dipengaruhi oleh pakan percobaan (P&gt;0,05). Pakan buatan dengan komposisi bahan 30% tepung Sargassum sp., 35% tepung Ulva sp., 4% tepung kedelai, dan 18% tepung beras menghasilkan pertumbuhan terbaik dan dapat diaplikasikan pada pemeliharaan teripang pasir.Sandfish, Holothuria scabra is a highly valued sea cucumber product in Asian markets. Current exploitation has reduced its wild stock to an alarming level. In order to alleviate the over-exploitation to its wild population and provide a reliable supply of market demands, the aquaculture technology of sandfish has to be developed and perfected. Feed is one of the important factors for a successful sea cucumber aquaculture, besides seed supply. The aim of this experiment was to obtain an appropriate feed formulation to support the growth of sandfish. Four experimental diets (dry pellet) were formulated using seaweed meal of Sargassum, Ulva, and Gracilaria, combined with soybean meal and rice flour, each with different proportions. In experiment-1, cultured sandfish juveniles with an initial weight of 14.4 ± 6.5 g were stocked into eight concrete tanks (2 m x 1 m x 0.6 m) with a density of 100 juveniles/tank. In experiment-2, sandfish juveniles with an initial weight of 7.0 ± 1.6 g were stocked into eight floating net cages (1 m x 1 m x 1 m) erected in a pond with a density of 50 juveniles/cage. The sandfish juveniles were fed once daily with the experimental diets for five and four months for experiment-1 and experiment-2, respectively. Results of the experiment showed that diet formulated with Sargassum, Ulva, and soybean meals and rice flour produced good growth and survival of sandfish, both reared in concrete tanks and in floating net cages. The experimental diets did not affect the survival of sandfish (P&gt;0.05). Formulated diet containing 30% Sargassum meal, 35% Ulva meal, 4% soybean meal, 18% rice flour, and 6% ‘lap lap’ flour gave the best growth and could be applied for grow-out of sandfish
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