274 research outputs found

    Desarrollo y caracterizaci贸n de un cemento 贸seo basado en fosfato tric谩cico para aplicaciones quir煤rgicas

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    Un campo que despierta un inter茅s creciente dentro del 谩mbito de los biomateriales para la regeneraci贸n osea es el de los cementos de fosfatos de calcio. Un cemento de fosfato de calcio consiste en una fase s贸lida formada por polvos de fosfatos de calcio, y una fase liquida, que al ser mezcladas fraguan a temperatura ambiente o fisiol贸gica, dando lugar a un cuerpo s贸lido. Junto a la biocompatibilidad y bioactividad de las cer谩micas de fosfatos de calcio, los cementos presentan una serie de ventajas especificas, derivadas de su proceso de obtenci贸n, como la moldeabilidad y la capacidad de fraguar "in situ", que pueden resolver los problemas de fijaci贸n y adaptaci贸n planteados por las cer谩micas de fosfatos de calcio.En este trabajo se desarrolla y caracteriza un cemento basado en la hidr贸lisis del fosfato tricalcico alfa. El fraguado del cemento se produce a partir de la disoluci贸n de las part铆culas de fosfato tricalcico y la precipitaci贸n de hidroxiapatita deficiente en calcio de baja cristalinidad, similar a las biol贸gicas, seg煤n la reacci贸n:3ALFA-CA3(PO4)2+H2O-CA9(HPO4)(PO4)5(OH) existe una relaci贸n lineal directa entre la resistencia mec谩nica del cemento y el porcentaje de fosfato tricalcico que ha reaccionado. Los estudios microestructurales muestran que la resistencia a la comprensi贸n se puede atribuir al entrelazamiento entre los cristales que precipitan.Existen distintas variables de procesado que afectan de forma significativa a las propiedades de fraguado y endurecimiento del cemento. Entre estas cabe destacar el tama帽o de part铆cula del polvo del cemento, la adici贸n de semillas, la utilizaci贸n de soluciones de Na2HPO4, la relaci贸n liquido/polvo empleada y la temperatura. Tras estudiar el efecto de estas variables sobre algunos par谩metros del cemento, como los tiempos de fraguado, el tiempo de cohesi贸n, y la velocidad de endurecimiento se investigan los mecanismos a trav茅s de los cuales tienen lugar los efectosCalcium phosphate cements have attracted much attention in recent years as bone regeneration materials. A calcium phosphate cement consists of a solid phase formed by calcium phosphate powders and a liquid phase, which after mixing are able to set at room or body temperature, producing a solid body Together with the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the calcium phosphate ceramics, calcium phosphate cements have specific advantages derived from their processing route, such as their mouldability, in situ setting ability, which can solve the fixation and adaptation problems inherent to calcium phosphate ceramics.This PhD Thesis is focused on the development and characterisation of a calcium phosphate cement based on the alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alfa-TCP) hydrolysis. The setting of the cement is produced by the dissolution of the alfa-TCP particles and the precipitation of a low crystallinity calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, similar to the biological hydroxyapatite, according to the following reaction: 3ALFA-CA3(PO4)2+H2O-CA9(HPO4)(PO4)5(OH) Both the degree of reaction and the compressive strength increase initially linearly with time, reaching subsequently a saturation level. A direct relation exists between the mechanical strength and the amount of reacted alfa-TCP. The microstructural analysis show that the cement hardening is caused by the entanglement between the precipitated crystals. The reaction mechanisms which control the reaction kinetics in the different stages of reaction are identified based on X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy studies.The contact of the cement with aqueous solutions which simulate body fluids does not affect its properties, and its setting and hardening behaviour at 37潞C fulfil the clinical requirements.Several processing parameters have been identified which affect significantly the setting and hardening properties of the cement. Among them, the particle size distribution of the starting powder, the addition of seed materials, the use Na2HPO4 solutions and the liquid to powder ratio used, are especially relevant. The effect of these parameters on several cement properties, such as the setting and cohesi贸n times, the hardening rate, the maximum strength, the reaction kinetics and the final microstructure is analysed, and the underlying mechanisms are discussed

    Rheological characterisation of ceramic inks for 3D direct ink writing: A review

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    3D printing is a competitive manufacturing technology, which has opened up new possibilities for the fabrication of complex ceramic structures and customised parts. Extrusion-based technologies, also known as direct ink writing (DIW) or robocasting, are amongst the most used for ceramic materials. In them, the rheological properties of the ink play a crucial role, determining both the extrudability of the paste and the shape fidelity of the printed parts. However, comprehensive rheological studies of printable ceramic inks are scarce and may be difficult to understand for non-specialists. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the main types of ceramic ink formulations developed for DIW and a detailed description of the more relevant rheological tests for assessing the printability of ceramic pastes. Moreover, the key rheological parameters are identified and linked to printability aspects, including the values reported in the literature for different ink compositions.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Regulating the antibiotic drug release from 脽-tricalcium phosphate ceramics by atmospheric plasma surface engineering

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    Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics are of interest in bone substitution due to their good biocompatibility and bioresorbability. Currently certain CaPs in the market are loaded with antibiotics in order to prevent infections but further control is needed over antibiotic release patterns. Cold plasmas have emerged as a useful means of modifying the interactions with drugs through surface modification of polymer materials. In this work we explore the possibility of using atmospheric pressure plasmas as a tool for the surface modification of these CaP materials with newly populated bonds and charges, with views on enabling higher loading and controlled drug release. Herein the surface modification of 脽-tricalcium phosphate ceramics is investigated using an atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet as a tool for tuning the controlled release of the antibiotic doxycycline hyclate, employed as a drug model. The surface chemistry is tailored mainly by plasma jet surface interaction with an increasing O/C ratio without changes in the topography as well as by build-up of surface charges. With this surface tailoring it is demonstrated that the atmospheric plasma jet is a new promising tool that leads to the design of a control for drug release from bioceramic matrices.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Correlating rheological properties with direct ink writing printability in hydrogel 鈥 calcium phosphate slurries: effect of polymeric and ceramic content

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    Direct Ink Writing enables the fabrication of personalized scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The ink must be smoothly extruded through a narrow nozzle without clogging to form continuous filaments, which must retain the nozzle shape and be capable of supporting its own weight during the assembly. This is linked to the viscoelastic properties of the ink, which should have a shear-thinning viscous behaviour at high shear rates, a high storage modulus at rest and a fast elastic recovery when flow stops [1]. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method that allows linking the rheological properties of a calcium phosphate/hydrogel paste with its printability, analysing the effect of polymeric and ceramic contents. CaP pastes were obtained by mixing Pluronic hydrogels (polymeric content: 20-35 wt.%) with 尾-TCP powder (ceramic concentration: 50-70 wt.%). The rheological characterisation was carried out in a rotational rheometer, using a 20 mm rough parallel plate geometry and a 500 渭m gap. All slurries showed a viscoelastic behaviour with a strong shear- thinning and a fast elastic recovery, both provided by the hydrogel network. The ceramic content affected significantly the properties at low shear rates: the elastic stiffness at rest, the percentage of elastic strength recovery and, above a 60 wt.%, the yield stress. Regarding printability, the filament shape-retention of extrudable pastes was assessed by image analysis of the sagging of a single filament printed over a row of pillars with increasing separation, whereas shape fidelity was evaluated by comparing 3D-printed scaffolds with the virtual model

    The influence of physicochemical properties of biomimetic Hydroxyapatite on the in vitro behavior of endothelial progenitor cells and their interaction with mesenchymal stem cells

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    Calcium phosphate (CaP) substrates are successfully used as bone grafts due to their osteogenic properties. However, the influence of the physicochemical features of CaPs in angiogenesis is frequently neglected despite it being a crucial process for bone regeneration. The present work focuses on analyzing the effects of textural parameters of biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) and sintered beta-tricalcium phosphate (脽-TCP), such as specific surface area, surface roughness, and microstructure, on the behavior of rat endothelial progenitor cells (rEPCs) and their crosstalk with rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs). The higher reactivity of CDHA results in low proliferation rates in monocultured and cocultured systems. This effect is especially pronounced for rMSCs alone, and for CDHA with a fine microstructure. In terms of angiogenic and osteogenic gene expressions, the upregulation of particular genes is especially enhanced for needle-like CDHA compared to plate-like CDHA and 脽-TCP, suggesting the importance not only of the chemistry of the substrate, but also of its textural features. Moreover, the coculture of rEPCs and rMSCs on needle-like CDHA results in early upregulation of osteogenic modulator, i.e., protein deglycase 1 might be a possible cause of overexpression of osteogenic-related genes on the same substrate.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Multiple characterization study on porosity and pore structure of calcium phosphate cements

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    Characterization of the intricate pore structure of calcium phosphate cements is a key step to successfully link the structural properties of these synthetic bone grafts with their most relevant properties, such as in vitro or in vivo behaviour, drug loading and release properties, or degradation over time. This is a challenging task due to the wide range of pore sizes in calcium phosphate cements, compared to most other ceramic biomaterials. This work provides a critical assessment of three different techniques based on different physical phenomena, namely mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), Nitrogen sorption, and thermoporometry (TPM) for the detailed characterization of four calcium phosphate cements with different textural properties in terms of total porosity, pore size distribution (PSD), and pore entrance size distribution (PESD). MIP covers a much wider size range than TPM and Nitrogen sorption, offering more comprehensive information at the micrometer level. TPM, and especially Nitrogen sorption, are non-destructive techniques and, although they cover a limited size range, provide complementary information regarding pore structure associated with crystal shape at the nanoscale, recording both PSD and PESD in a single experiment. MIP tended to register smaller sizes, especially at low L/P ratios, due to the network effect, which has a strong influence on the outcome of this technique. Statement of significance The detailed characterisation of the porosity of calcium phosphate cements is of paramount importance, since it is a key parameter influencing some of the most relevant features, like mechanical properties, degradation rate or drug loading and release kinetics. However, this is a challenging task because, once hardened, calcium phosphate cements present an intricate morphology, consisting of a network of precipitated crystals, which generate a high intrinsic micro/nano porosity, with pore sizes covering six orders of magnitude. This work provides for the first time a critical assessment of the advantages and limitations of three different techniques, namely mercury intrusion porosimetry, Nitrogen sorption and Thermoporometry, for the characterisation of the porosity of four calcium phosphate cements with different textural propertiePeer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Heparinization of beta tricalcium phosphate: osteo-immunomodulatory effects

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    "This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: A. Diez-Escudero, M. Espanol, M. Bonany, X. Lu, C. Persson, M.-P. Ginebra, Adv. Healthcare Mater. 2018, 7, 1700867, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201700867. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving."Immune cells play a vital role in regulating bone dynamics. This has boosted the interest in developing biomaterials that can modulate both the immune and skeletal systems. In this study, calcium phosphates discs (i.e., beta-tricalcium phosphate, 脽-TCP) are functionalized with heparin to investigate the effects on immune and stem cell responses. The results show that the functionalized surfaces downregulate the release of hydrogen peroxide and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta) from human monocytes and neutrophils, compared to nonfunctionalized discs. The macrophages show both elongated and round shapes on the two ceramic substrates, but the morphology of cells on heparinized 脽-TCP tends toward a higher elongation after 72 h. The heparinized substrates support rat mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion and proliferation, and anticipate the differentiation toward the osteoblastic lineage as compared to 脽-TCP and control. The coupling between the inflammatory response and osteogenesis is assessed by culturing MSCs with the macrophage supernatants. The downregulation of inflammation in contact with the heparinized substrates induces higher expression of bone-related markers by MSCsPeer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Modulation of release kinetics by plasma polymerization of ampicillin-loaded 脽-TCP ceramics

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    Beta-tricalcium phosphate (脽-TCP) bioceramics are employed in bone repair surgery. Their local implantation in bone defects puts them in the limelight as potential materials for local drug delivery. However, obtaining suitable release patterns fitting the required therapeutics is a challenge. Here, plasma polymerization of ampicillin-loaded 脽-TCP is studied for the design of a novel antibiotic delivery system. Polyethylene glycol-like (PEG-like) coating of 脽-TCP by low pressure plasma polymerization was performed using diglyme as precursor, and nanometric PEG-like layers were obtained by simple and double plasma polymerization processes. A significant increase in hydrophobicity, and the presence of plasma polymer was visible on the surface by SEM and quantified by XPS. As a main consequence of the plasma polymerisation, the release kinetics were successfully modified, avoiding burst release, and slowing down the initial rate of release leading to a 4.5驴h delay in reaching the same antibiotic release percentage, whilst conservation of the activity of the antibiotic was simultaneously maintained. Thus, plasma polymerisation on the surface of bioceramics may be a good strategy to design controlled drug delivery matrices for local bone therapiesPeer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft
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