29 research outputs found

    Effect of a diet based on the dietary guidelines for americans on inflammation markers in women at risk for cardiometabolic disease: results of a randomized, controlled trial.

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    ObjectiveTo evaluate the effect of a diet pattern based on Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), in a controlled feeding setting, on plasma markers of inflammation and on cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).DesignWomen (n = 44) with one or more risk factors of metabolic syndrome (and BMI: 25.2-39.8 kg/m2) completed an 8-wk controlled feeding study. They were randomized to either a group following a diet based on DGA 2010 (DGA), or a group given a 'typical American diet' (TAD), based largely on a Western diet pattern. By design, women maintained their body weight. Fasting plasma and PBMC were collected at wk. 0 (baseline) and at wk. 8 (post-intervention). Sixteen plasma markers of inflammation and eight PBMC cytokines were measured at both time points, to evaluate if the diet had a significant effect on concentrations of these inflammatory markers. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA, followed by multiple-comparison adjustment using Benjamini-Hochberg method.ResultsSignificant changes observed in Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) in plasma did not retain significance upon multiple comparison adjustment. SAA: p = 0.044, adj p = 0.450; DGA mean change [95% CI] = - 12.6[- 32.3 to 7.04]; TAD mean change [95% CI] = - 2.24 [- 9.99 to 5.51]. MMP3: p = 0.014, adj p = 0.35; DGA mean change [95% CI] = 2.72[- 4.16 to 9.59]; TAD mean change [95% CI] = - 0.98[- 16.7 to 14.7]). Other inflammation markers were not differently altered by DGA relative to TAD. Effect size of change (Cohens d) indicated a large/medium-large effect of intervention on MMP3 and CRP, and medium effect on IL-6.ConclusionsNo statistically significant changes were observed in the immune markers examined in this study. The biological roles and magnitude of the non-significant differences seen with two variables, CRP and MMP3, suggest that they be examined in future studies.Trial registrationClinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02298725

    Markers of Bone Mineral Metabolism and Cardiac Structure and Function in Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed but Uninfected Children and Adolescents

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    Background: Disordered bone mineral metabolism and low vitamin D concentrations are associated with cardiovascular abnormalities; few studies have evaluated this relationship in HIV-infected youth. Setting: Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP) is a Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) network study conducted across 14 United States sites. Methods: Among perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) and HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) youth enrolled in AMP, we evaluated associations of vitamin D (measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphate, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentrations with echocardiographic measures of left ventricular (LV) structure, function and concentrations of NT-proBNP, a biomarker of cardiac damage. Results: Among 485 participants (305 PHIV, 180 PHEU) with echocardiograms and bone mineralization measures, low 25OHD ( 65 pg/mL) was identified more often among PHIV than PHEU participants (9% vs 3%, p=0.02). After adjusting for HIV status and demographic covariates, both low 25OHD and elevated PTH were associated with lower mean LV mass z-scores, while elevated PTH was associated with higher mean fractional shortening z-scores. Participants with low 25OHD also had slightly higher mean LV end-systolic wall stress z-scores, but differences were more pronounced in PHEU than in PHIV participants. FGF-23 was inversely related to end-diastolic septal thickness both overall and among PHIV participants. Conclusion: In this cohort of PHIV and PHEU youth, we observed associations of 25OHD, PTH, and FGF-23 with both structural and functional cardiac parameters, supporting links between bone mineral metabolism and cardiac status

    Daily Preventive Zinc Supplementation Decreases Lymphocyte and Eosinophil Concentrations in Rural Laotian Children from Communities with a High Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    BACKGROUND:Zinc deficiency impairs immune function and is common among children in South-East Asia. OBJECTIVES:The effect of zinc supplementation on immune function in young Laotian children was investigated. METHODS:Children (n = 512) aged 6-23 mo received daily preventive zinc tablets (PZ; 7 mg Zn/d), daily multiple micronutrient powder (MNP; 10 mg Zn/d, 6 mg Fe/d, plus 13 other micronutrients), therapeutic dispersible zinc tablets only in association with diarrhea episodes (TZ; 20 mg Zn/d for 10 d after an episode), or daily placebo powder (control). These interventions continued for 9 mo. Cytokine production from whole blood cultures, the concentrations of T-cell populations, and a complete blood count with differential leukocyte count were measured at baseline and endline. Endline means were compared via ANCOVA, controlling for the baseline value of the outcome, child age and sex, district, month of enrollment, and baseline zinc status (below, or above or equal to, the median plasma zinc concentration). RESULTS:T-cell cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-17), LPS-stimulated cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10), and T-cell concentrations at endline did not differ between intervention groups, nor was there an interaction with baseline zinc status. However, mean ± SE endline lymphocyte concentrations were significantly lower in the PZ than in the control group (5018 ± 158 compared with 5640 ± 160 cells/μL, P = 0.032). Interactions with baseline zinc status were seen for eosinophils (Pixn = 0.0036), basophils (Pixn = 0.023), and monocytes (P = 0.086) but a significant subgroup difference was seen only for eosinophils, where concentrations were significantly lower in the PZ than in the control group among children with baseline plasma zinc concentrations below the overall median (524 ± 44 compared with 600 ± 41 cells/μL, P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS:Zinc supplementation of rural Laotian children had no effect on cytokines or T-cell concentrations, although zinc supplementation affected lymphocyte and eosinophil concentrations. These cell subsets may be useful as indicators of response to zinc supplementation.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02428647

    Associations of Low Vitamin D and Elevated Parathyroid Hormone Concentrations With Bone Mineral Density in Perinatally HIV-Infected Children

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    BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children have, on average, lower bone mineral density (BMD) than perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) and healthy children. Low 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations may lead to suboptimal bone accrual. METHODS: PHIV and PHEU children in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study had total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; BMD z-scores (BMDz) were calculated for age and sex. Low 25(OH)D was defined as ≤20 ng/mL and high PTH as >65 pg/mL. We fit linear regression models to estimate the average adjusted differences in BMD/BMC by 25(OH)D and PTH status and log binomial models to determine adjusted prevalence ratios of low 25(OH)D and high PTH in PHIV relative to PHEU children. RESULTS: PHIV children (n = 412) were older (13.0 vs. 10.8 years) and more often black (76% vs. 64%) than PHEU (n = 207). Among PHIV, children with low 25(OH)D had lower TB-BMDz [SD, -0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.60 to -0.16] and TB-BMC (SD, -59.1 g; 95% CI, -108.3 to -9.8); high PTH accompanied by low 25(OH)D was associated with lower TB-BMDz. Among PHEU, children with low 25(OH)D had lower TB-BMDz (SD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.64 to -0.03). Prevalence of low 25(OH)D was similar by HIV status (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.24). High PTH was 3.17 (95% CI, 1.25 to 8.06) times more likely in PHIV children. CONCLUSIONS: PHIV and PHEU children with low 25(OH)D may have lower BMD. Vitamin D supplementation trials during critical periods of bone accrual are needed