32 research outputs found

    Development of a diagnostic rule for identifying radiographic osteoarthritis in people with first metatarsophalangeal joint pain

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    SummaryObjectiveTo develop a diagnostic rule for the identification of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) in people with first MTPJ pain.DesignSymptoms and clinical observations were documented in 181 people with first MTPJ pain, and the presence of OA was confirmed using plain film radiography. Diagnostic test statistics were calculated to assess the ability of symptoms and clinical observations to identify radiographic OA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to develop two diagnostic models: a statistically optimal model and a simplified clinical model.ResultsMultivariate logistic regression identified pain duration greater than 25 months, the presence of a dorsal exostosis, hard-end feel, crepitus and less than 64° of first MTPJ dorsiflexion to be significantly associated with radiographic OA. The statistically optimal model and clinical model performed similarly, with the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves being 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81–0.93) and 0.87 (95% CI 0.80–0.93), respectively, and the percentage of cases correctly classified being 86.2 and 85.6, respectively. A cut-off score of ≥3 using the clinical model resulted in a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 71%, accuracy of 84%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.07 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.17.ConclusionsIn people with first MTPJ pain, a model consisting of five clinical observations can accurately identify the presence or absence of radiographic OA. The application of this diagnostic rule may assist clinical decision making and potentially reduce the need for referral for radiographs

    Radiographic correlates of hallux valgus severity in older people

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The severity of hallux valgus is easily appreciated by its clinical appearance, however x-ray measurements are also frequently used to evaluate the condition, particularly if surgery is being considered. There have been few large studies that have assessed the validity of these x-ray observations across a wide spectrum of the deformity. In addition, no studies have specifically focused on older people where the progression of the disorder has largely ceased. Therefore, this study aimed to explore relationships between relevant x-ray observations with respect to hallux valgus severity in older people.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>This study utilised 402 x-rays of 201 participants (74 men and 127 women) aged 65 to 94 years. All participants were graded using the Manchester Scale - a simple, validated system to grade the severity of hallux valgus - prior to radiographic assessment. A total of 19 hallux valgus-related x-ray observations were performed on each set of x-rays. These measurements were then correlated with the Manchester Scale scores.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Strong, positive correlations were identified between the severity of hallux valgus and the hallux abductus angle, the proximal articular set angle, the sesamoid position and congruency of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. As hallux valgus severity increased, so did the frequency of radiographic osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and a round first metatarsal head. A strong linear relationship between increased relative length of the first metatarsal and increased severity of hallux valgus was also observed.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Strong associations are evident between the clinical appearance of hallux valgus and a number of hallux valgus-related x-ray observations indicative of structural deformity and joint degeneration. As it is unlikely that metatarsal length increases as a result of hallux valgus deformity, increased length of the first metatarsal relative to the second metatarsal may be a contributing factor to the development and/or progression of hallux valgus.</p

    Reliability of the TekScan MatScan® system for the measurement of plantar forces and pressures during barefoot level walking in healthy adults

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Plantar pressure systems are increasingly being used to evaluate foot function in both research settings and in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of the TekScan MatScan<sup>® </sup>system in assessing plantar forces and pressures during barefoot level walking.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Thirty participants were assessed for the reliability of measurements taken one week apart for the variables maximum force, peak pressure and average pressure. The following seven regions of the foot were investigated; heel, midfoot, 3<sup>rd</sup>-5<sup>th </sup>metatarsophalangeal joint, 2<sup>nd </sup>metatarsophalangeal joint, 1<sup>st </sup>metatarsophalangeal joint, hallux and the lesser toes.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Reliability was assessed using both the mean and the median values of three repeated trials. The system displayed moderate to good reliability of mean and median calculations for the three analysed variables across all seven regions, as indicated by intra-class correlation coefficients ranging from 0.44 to 0.95 for the mean and 0.54 to 0.97 for the median, and coefficients of variation ranging from 5 to 20% for the mean and 3 to 23% for the median. Selecting the median value of three repeated trials yielded slightly more reliable results than the mean.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>These findings indicate that the TekScan MatScan<sup>® </sup>system demonstrates generally moderate to good reliability.</p

    Plantar calcaneal spurs in older people: longitudinal traction or vertical compression?

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Plantar calcaneal spurs are common, however their pathophysiology is poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of plantar calcaneal spurs in a large sample of older people.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Weightbearing lateral foot radiographs of 216 people (140 women and 76 men) aged 62 to 94 years (mean age 75.9, <smcaps>SD</smcaps> 6.6) were examined for plantar calcaneal and Achilles tendon spurs. Associations between the presence of spurs and sex, body mass index, radiographic measures of foot posture, self-reported co-morbidities and current or previous heel pain were then explored.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Of the 216 participants, 119 (55%) had at least one plantar calcaneal spur and 103 (48%) had at least one Achilles tendon spur. Those with plantar calcaneal spurs were more likely to have Achilles tendon spurs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 3.5). Prevalence of spurs did not differ according to sex. Participants with plantar calcaneal spurs were more likely to be obese (OR = 7.9, 95% CI 3.6 to 17.0), report osteoarthritis (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.8) and have current or previous heel pain (OR = 4.6, 95% CI 2.3 to 9.4). No relationship was found between the presence of calcaneal spurs and radiographic measures of foot posture.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Calcaneal spurs are common in older men and women and are related to obesity, osteoarthritis and current or previous heel pain, but are unrelated to radiographic measurements of foot posture. These findings support the theory that plantar calcaneal spurs may be an adaptive response to vertical compression of the heel rather than longitudinal traction at the calcaneal enthesis.</p

    Efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronan (Synvisc®) for the treatment of osteoarthritis affecting the first metatarsophalangeal joint of the foot (hallux limitus): study protocol for a randomised placebo controlled trial

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) of the foot, termed <it>hallux limitus</it>, is common and painful. Numerous non-surgical interventions have been proposed for this disorder, however there is limited evidence for their efficacy. Intra-articular injections of hyaluronan have shown beneficial effects in case-series and clinical trials for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. However, no study has evaluated the efficacy of this form of treatment using a randomised placebo controlled trial. This article describes the design of a randomised placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronan (Synvisc<sup>®</sup>) to reduce pain and improve function in people with hallux limitus.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>One hundred and fifty community-dwelling men and women aged 18 years and over with hallux limitus (who satisfy inclusion and exclusion criteria) will be recruited.</p> <p>Participants will be randomised, using a computer-generated random number sequence, to receive a single intra-articular injection of up to 1 ml hyaluronan (Synvisc<sup>®</sup>) or sterile saline (placebo) into the first MPJ. The injections will be performed by an interventional radiologist using fluoroscopy to ensure accurate deposition of the hyaluronan in the joint. Participants will be given the option of a second and final intra-articular injection (of Synvisc<sup>® </sup>or sterile saline according to the treatment group they are in) either 1 or 3 months post-treatment if there is no improvement in pain and the participant has not experienced severe adverse effects after the first injection. The primary outcome measures will be the pain and function subscales of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures will be pain at the first MPJ (during walking and at rest), stiffness at the first MPJ, passive non-weightbearing dorsiflexion of the first MPJ, plantar flexion strength of the toe-flexors of the hallux, global satisfaction with the treatment, health-related quality of life (assessed using the Short-Form-36 version two questionnaire), magnitude of symptom change, use of pain-relieving medication and changes in dynamic plantar pressure distribution (maximum force and peak pressure) during walking. Data will be collected at baseline, then 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Data will be analysed using the intention to treat principle.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>This study is the first randomised placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronan (Synvisc<sup>®</sup>) for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the first MPJ (hallux limitus). The study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the study findings can be implemented into clinical practice if this form of treatment is found to be an effective treatment strategy.</p> <p>Trial registration</p> <p>Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12607000654459</p

    Breast cancer management pathways during the COVID-19 pandemic: outcomes from the UK ‘Alert Level 4’ phase of the B-MaP-C study

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    Abstract: Background: The B-MaP-C study aimed to determine alterations to breast cancer (BC) management during the peak transmission period of the UK COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact of these treatment decisions. Methods: This was a national cohort study of patients with early BC undergoing multidisciplinary team (MDT)-guided treatment recommendations during the pandemic, designated ‘standard’ or ‘COVID-altered’, in the preoperative, operative and post-operative setting. Findings: Of 3776 patients (from 64 UK units) in the study, 2246 (59%) had ‘COVID-altered’ management. ‘Bridging’ endocrine therapy was used (n = 951) where theatre capacity was reduced. There was increasing access to COVID-19 low-risk theatres during the study period (59%). In line with national guidance, immediate breast reconstruction was avoided (n = 299). Where adjuvant chemotherapy was omitted (n = 81), the median benefit was only 3% (IQR 2–9%) using ‘NHS Predict’. There was the rapid adoption of new evidence-based hypofractionated radiotherapy (n = 781, from 46 units). Only 14 patients (1%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during their treatment journey. Conclusions: The majority of ‘COVID-altered’ management decisions were largely in line with pre-COVID evidence-based guidelines, implying that breast cancer survival outcomes are unlikely to be negatively impacted by the pandemic. However, in this study, the potential impact of delays to BC presentation or diagnosis remains unknown