26 research outputs found

    DATAMAN: A global database of nitrous oxide and ammonia emission factors for excreta deposited by livestock and land-applied manure

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    Nitrous oxide (N2 O), ammonia (NH3 ), and methane (CH4 ) emissions from the manure management chain of livestock production systems are important contributors to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and NH3 emitted by human activities. Several studies have evaluated manure-related emissions and associated key variables at regional, national, or continental scales. However, there have been few studies focusing on the drivers of these emissions using a global dataset. An international project was created (DATAMAN) to develop a global database on GHG and NH3 emissions from the manure management chain (housing, storage, and field) to identify key variables influencing emissions and ultimately to refine emission factors (EFs) for future national GHG inventories and NH3 emission reporting. This paper describes the "field" database that focuses on N2 O and NH3 EFs from land-applied manure and excreta deposited by grazing livestock. We collated relevant information (EFs, manure characteristics, soil properties, and climatic conditions) from published peer-reviewed research, conference papers, and existing databases. The database, containing 5,632 observations compiled from 184 studies, was relatively evenly split between N2 O and NH3 (56 and 44% of the EF values, respectively). The N2 O data were derived from studies conducted in 21 countries on five continents, with New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Kenya, and Brazil representing 86% of the data. The NH3 data originated from studies conducted in 17 countries on four continents, with the United Kingdom, Denmark, Canada, and The Netherlands representing 79% of the data. Wet temperate climates represented 90% of the total database. The DATAMAN field database is available at http://www.dataman.co.nz

    Ammonia and nitrous oxide emission factors for excreta deposited by livestock and land-applied manure

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    Manure application to land and deposition of urine and dung by grazing animals are major sources of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Using data on NH3 and N2O emissions following land-applied manures and excreta deposited during grazing, emission factors (EFs) disaggregated by climate zone were developed, and the effects of mitigation strategies were evaluated. The NH3 data represent emissions from cattle and swine manures in temperate wet climates, and the N2O data include cattle, sheep, and swine manure emissions in temperate wet/dry and tropical wet/dry climates. The NH3 EFs for broadcast cattle solid manure and slurry were 0.03 and 0.24 kg NH3–N kg–1 total N (TN), respectively, whereas the NH3 EF of broadcast swine slurry was 0.29. Emissions from both cattle and swine slurry were reduced between 46 and 62% with low-emissions application methods. Land application of cattle and swine manure in wet climates had EFs of 0.005 and 0.011 kg N2O–N kg–1 TN, respectively, whereas in dry climates the EF for cattle manure was 0.0031. The N2O EFs for cattle urine and dung in wet climates were 0.0095 and 0.002 kg N2O–N kg–1 TN, respectively, which were three times greater than for dry climates. The N2O EFs for sheep urine and dung in wet climates were 0.0043 and 0.0005, respectively. The use of nitrification inhibitors reduced emissions in swine manure, cattle urine/dung, and sheep urine by 45–63%. These enhanced EFs can improve national inventories; however, more data from poorly represented regions (e.g., Asia, Africa, South America) are needed.</p

    Ammonia and nitrous oxide emission factors for excreta deposited by livestock and land-applied manure

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    Manure application to land and deposition of urine and dung by grazing animals are major sources of ammonia (NH3 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. Using data on NH3 and N2 O emissions following land-applied manures and excreta deposited during grazing, emission factors (EFs) disaggregated by climate zone were developed, and the effects of mitigation strategies were evaluated. The NH3 data represent emissions from cattle and swine manures in temperate wet climates, and the N2 O data include cattle, sheep, and swine manure emissions in temperate wet/dry and tropical wet/dry climates. The NH3 EFs for broadcast cattle solid manure and slurry were 0.03 and 0.24 kg NH3 -N kg-1 total N (TN), respectively, whereas the NH3 EF of broadcast swine slurry was 0.29. Emissions from both cattle and swine slurry were reduced between 46 and 62% with low-emissions application methods. Land application of cattle and swine manure in wet climates had EFs of 0.005 and 0.011 kg N2 O-N kg-1 TN, respectively, whereas in dry climates the EF for cattle manure was 0.0031. The N2 O EFs for cattle urine and dung in wet climates were 0.0095 and 0.002 kg N2 O-N kg-1 TN, respectively, which were three times greater than for dry climates. The N2 O EFs for sheep urine and dung in wet climates were 0.0043 and 0.0005, respectively. The use of nitrification inhibitors reduced emissions in swine manure, cattle urine/dung, and sheep urine by 45-63%. These enhanced EFs can improve national inventories; however, more data from poorly represented regions (e.g., Asia, Africa, South America) are needed

    Acidification of manure reduces gaseous emissions and nutrient losses from subsequent composting process

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    Manure acidification is recommended to minimize ammonia (NH3) emission at storage. However, the potential for acidification to mitigate NH3 emission from storage and the impact of manure acidification (pH range 5–8) on composting have been poorly studied. The effects of manure acidification at storage on the subsequent composting process, nutrient balance, gaseous emissions and product quality were assessed through an analysis of literature data and an experiment under controlled conditions. Results of the data mining showed that mineral acids, acidic salts and organic acids significantly reduced NH3 emission, however, a weaker effect was observed for organic acids. A subsequent composting experiment showed that using manure acidified to pH5 or pH6 as feedstock delayed organic matter degradation for 7–10 days, although pH6 had no negative effect on compost maturity. Acidification significantly decreased NH3 emission from both storage and composting, however, excessive acidification (pH5) enhanced N2O emissions (18.6%) during composting. When manure was acidified to pH6, N2O (17.6%) and CH4 (20%) emissions, and total GHG emissions expressed as global warming potential (GWP) (9.6%) were reduced during composting. Acidification of manure before composting conserved more N as NH4 + and NOx − in compost product. Compared to the control, the labile, plant-available phosphorus (P) content in the compost product, predominately as water-soluble inorganic P, increased with manure acidification to pH5 and pH6. Acidification of manure to pH6 before composting decreases nutrient losses and gaseous emissions without decreasing the quality of the compost product. The techno-economic advantages of acidification should be further ascertained.</p

    Can dietary manipulations improve the productivity of pigs with lower environmental and economic cost? A global meta-analysis

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    Inappropriate management of pig manure contributes considerably to pollution of waterbodies by nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and to air pollution by ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions. Dietary manipulation is recognized as a possible pollution mitigation measure, but it may affect pig growth and thereby production costs. Here we present a global meta-analysis of the effects of dietary manipulation on nutrient (N and P) excretion, gaseous (NH3 and H2S) emissions from manure, and growth performance of pigs, using data from 245 published studies. Four groups of dietary manipulation were distinguished, namely i) lowering dietary crude protein (CP) content, (ii) supplementing exogenous enzymes, (iii) supplementing fermented feed ingredients, and (iv) supplementing other additives (e.g. fermentable carbohydrates, acidifying agent/salts and probiotics) in feed. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of dietary manipulations was evaluated, expressed as US $ per kg N excretion abated. Results show that lowering CP content significantly reduced both total N excretion (28.5%) and NH3 emissions (34.4%). Addition of protease reduced N excretion (18.2%) but did not affect NH3 emissions. Supplementing other additives simultaneously reduced NH3 emissions (21.5%) and H2S emissions (23.2%). Adding phytase to feed significantly decreased total P excretion by 31.4%. Diets with fermented feed ingredients tended to decrease N excretion and emissions, but this effect was not statistically significant. All dietary manipulations significantly improved the growth performance regarding the weight gain and feed efficiency, except for lowering CP content. But lowering dietary CP content within a moderate level in combination with adding additional amino acids did not impair pig growth. The cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that various diary manipulation measures were economically beneficial to farmers through improved feed-to-meat conversion efficiency. Our results can support to the design of proper dietary formulations so as to simultaneously reduce N and P excretion and associated emissions, meanwhile enhance the growth performance of pigs with lower economic cost.</p

    Accumulation and leaching of nitrate in soils in wheat-maize production in China

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    Application rates of fertilizers in China often exceed crop requirements, resulting in high accumulation of nitrate (NO3) in the soil. Nitrate that has accumulated in soils is highly prone to leaching, directly threatening the quality of groundwater. A study was conducted to assess the magnitude of NO3 accumulation and leaching in China, to identify factors controlling NO3 accumulation and leaching, and to develop strategies that can be used to minimize NO3 leaching. Data were compiled from 212 studies conducted in China, amounting to 1077 observations of the NO3 content of the 0–100 cm soil profile in wheat and maize fields after harvest. Leaching of NO3 was significantly correlated with NO3 accumulation in the soil. NO3 leaching increased with 0.058 and 0.34 kg NO3-N ha−1 per season for wheat and maize, respectively, for every 1 kg ha-1 increase in NO3-N accumulation in 0–100 cm. This mainly related to lower precipitation during the wheat season and intensive rainfall in the maize season. Accumulation of NO3 in maize systems was 50% lower than for wheat when fertilized at the same rate, due to differences in rainfall between seasons. Soil NO3 accumulation was higher in heavy textured soils than in freely draining lighter textured soils, as most of NO3 leached out of 0–100 cm soil in lighter textured soils. Compared to flood irrigation, sprinkler irrigation increased NO3 accumulation by 17% and 152% for wheat and maize, respectively, due to lower irrigation and leaching rate. The level of nitrate accumulation in Chinese arable soils has become a significant hazard to drinking water, so good agricultural management is essential. Soil NO3 accumulation and leaching in China can be reduced by source and process control, such as reducing fertilizer application, using slow or controlled release forms of fertilizers, and regulating irrigation.</p

    Exploring Future Food Provision Scenarios for China

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    Developing sustainable food systems is essential, especially for emerging economies, where food systems are changing rapidly and affect the environment and natural resources. We explored possible future pathways for a sustainable food system in China, using multiple environmental indicators linked to eight of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Forecasts for 2030 in a business as usual scenario (BAU) indicate increases in animal food consumption as well as increased shortages of the land available and the water needed to produce the required food in China. Associated greenhouse gas emissions and nitrogen and phosphorus losses could become 10-42% of global emissions in 2010. We developed three main pathways besides BAU [produce more and better food (PMB), consume and waste less food (CWL), and import more food (IMF)] and analyzed their impacts and contributions to achieving one or more of the eight SDGs. Under these scenarios, the demand for land and water and the emissions of GHG and nutrients may decrease by 7-55% compared to BAU, depending on the pathway followed. A combination of PMB and CWL was most effective, while IMF externalizes impacts to countries exporting to China. Modestly increasing feed or food imports in a selective manner could ease the pressure on natural resources. Our modeling framework allows us to analyze the effects of changes in food production-consumption systems in an integrated manner, and the results can be linked to the eight SDGs. Despite formidable technological, social, educational, and structural barriers that need to be overcome, our study indicates that the ambitious targets of China's new agricultural and environmental strategy appear to be achievable.</p

    Mitigation options to reduce nitrogen losses to water from crop and livestock production in China

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    Nitrogen (N) loss from agriculture threatens water quality and affects human health, especially the nitrate leaching. In China, nitrate concentrations in ground-water frequently exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) quality standard for drinking water of 50 mg L−1. In this paper we explore mitigation measures for reducing N loss to water from agriculture. Firstly, we synthesis the current state of nitrate pollution through a review the published literatures. Then, we review measures to mitigate N loss to water. Finally, we present a comprehensive scenario analysis to evaluate the effect of N loss mitigation measures, following a Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) approach, similar to that used by EU countries. A combination of balanced N fertilization, precision fertilizer application and irrigation techniques, and a decrease of direct manure discharge into watercourses can decrease N loss from the area of potential designated NVZs by nearly 50% compared to the reference year - 2012. We argue that further research and policy instruments for controlling N loss to water are essential for managing N in crop and livestock production systems in order to protect water quality for human consumption.</p

    Correction to: Reducing external costs of nitrogen pollution by relocation of pig production between regions in the European Union

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    The article Reducing external costs of nitrogen pollution by relocation of pig production between regions in the European Union, written by Hans J. M. van Grinsven, Jan D. van Dam, Jan Peter Lesschen, Marloes H. G. Timmers, Gerard L. Velthof, Luis Lassaletta, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 28 May 2018 without open access. With the author(s)’ decision to opt for Open Choice the copyright of the article changed on April 2019.</p

    Reducing external costs of nitrogen pollution by relocation of pig production between regions in the European Union

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    This paper tests the hypothesis that relocation of pig production within the EU27 can reduce the external costs of nitrogen (N) pollution. The external cost of pollution by ammonia and nitrate from agriculture in the European Union (EU27) in 2008 was estimated at 61–215 billion € (0.5 to 1.8% of the GDP). Per capita it ranged from more than 1000 € in north-west EU27 to 50 € in Romania. The average contribution of pig production was 15%. Using provincial data (224 NUTS2 regions in EU27), the potential reduction of external N cost by relocation of pig production was estimated at 14 billion € (10% of the total). Regions most eligible for decreasing the pig stock were in western Germany, Flemish region, Denmark, the Netherlands and Bretagne, while Romania is most eligible for increasing pig production. Relocating 20 million pigs (13% of the total EU stock) decreased average external costs per capita from 900 to 785 € in the 13 NUTS2 regions where pigs were removed and increased from 69 to 107 € in 11 regions receiving pigs. A second alternative configuration of pig production was targeted at reducing exceedance of critical N deposition and closing regional nutrient cycles. This configuration relocates pigs within Germany and France, for example from Bretagne to Northern France and from Weser-Ems to Oberbayern. However, total external cost increases due to an increase of health impacts, unless when combined with implementation of best N management practices. Relocation of the pig industry in the EU27 will meet many socio-economic barriers and realisation requires new policy incentives.</p
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