30 research outputs found

    Double-staining immunohistochemistry showing the distribution of P2X7 receptors (green) and the neuronal marker HuC/D (red) in the myenteric plexus of colonic cryosections from control (A; normal) or DNBS-treated (B; colitis) rats.

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    <p>Nuclei were stained with TOTO-3. Scale bar: 21 µm. Enlarged view of HuC/D<sup>+</sup> and P2X7<sup>+</sup> cells in the myenteric ganglia of normal and colitis rats from boxed area in overlay (scale bar = 10 µm). LM, longitudinal muscle; CM, circular muscle; MG, myenteric ganglia. Isotype fluorescent image was obtained by labeling with streptavidin conjugated with Alexa Fluor 555 in presence of normal mouse antiserum instead of the primary antibody.</p

    Preparations of longitudinal smooth muscle isolated from normal (A) or DNBS-treated rats (colitis) (B).

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    <p>Effects of increasing concentrations of A804598 (0.001–10 µM) on contractions evoked by sES (0.5 ms, 10 Hz, 30 mA, 10 s) in preparations maintained in standard Krebs solution. Each column represents the mean±SEM obtained from 6 experiments. *P<0.05, versus control (CON).</p

    BSE and AKBA effect on NF-kB intracellular level in Caco-2 cells.

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    <p>A) basal condition; B) BSE and AKBA + 4 hours with H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> <sup>+++</sup> <i>p</i><0.001 H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> <i>vs</i> control. *** <i>p</i><0.001 BSE and AKBA <i>vs</i> H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> ** <i>p</i><0.01 BSE and AKBA <i>vs</i> H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. C) 24 hours pretreatment with BSE and AKBA + 4h with INF-γ+TNF-α as described in method. <sup>+++</sup><i>p</i><0.001 INFγ+TNFα <i>vs</i> control <sup>+</sup><i>p</i><0.05 INFγ+TNFα <i>vs</i> control ***<i>p</i><0.001 BSE and AKBA <i>vs</i> INF-γ+TNF-α. Data are shown as mean ± SEM percentage of control optical density (OD) of n = 3 experiments.</p

    Effect of BSE and AKBA on transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

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    <p>A) BSE and AKBA; B) BSE and AKBA with H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> (<sup>+++</sup><i>p</i><0.001 H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> <i>vs</i> control. ***<i>p</i><0.001 BSE and AKBA vs H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> **<i>p</i><0.01 BSE and AKBA <i>vs</i> H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>); C) BSE or AKBA with INFγ+TNFα (<sup>++</sup><i>p</i><0.01 INF-γ+TNF-α <i>vs</i> control ***<i>p</i><0.001 BSE and AKBA <i>vs</i> INF-γ+TNF-α **<i>p</i><0.01 BSE and AKBA <i>vs</i> INF-γ+TNF-α). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM percentage of baseline TEER value of n = 3 experiments.</p

    BSE and AKBA effect on occludin and zonula occludens (ZO1) TJ proteins in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

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    <p>BSE and AKBA did not affect basal fluorescent signal of anti-ZO-1 (red) and anti-occludin (green). Images were collected by confocal laser-scanning microscope and are representative of 3 independent experiments. Scale bar = 10 μm.</p

    Effect of BSE and AKBA on Caco-2 cell monolayers paracellular permeability, measured by sodium fluorescein assay.

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    <p>A) basal condition. B) BSE and AKBA + H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> (<sup>+++</sup><i>p</i><0.001 H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> <i>vs</i> control ***<i>p</i><0.001 BSE and AKBA <i>vs</i> H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> **<i>p</i><0.01 BSE and AKBA <i>vs</i> H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>). C) BSE and AKBA + INF-γ+TNF-α. (<sup>+++</sup>p<0.001 INFγ+TNFα <i>vs</i> control <sup>+</sup><i>p</i><0.05 INF-γ+TNF-α <i>vs</i> control ***<i>p</i><0.001 BSE and AKBA <i>vs</i> INF-γ+TNF-α). Data are shown as mean ± SEM percentage of basal fluorescent intensity (FI) of n = 3 experiments.</p
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