400 research outputs found

    Controlling Latent TB Tuberculosis Infection in High-Burden Countries: A Neglected Strategy to End TB

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    In a Perspective, Gavin Churchyard and Sue Swindells discuss the importance of strategies to target latent tuberculosis infection in high risk populations and thus disrupt a reservoir for new infections in high burden countries

    Data for: "The utility of repeat Xpert MTB/RIF testing to diagnose tuberculosis in HIV-positive adults with initial negative result"

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    The World Health Organization recommends regular tuberculosis screening of HIV-positive individuals with Xpert MTB/RIF as the first diagnostic test. Further evaluation of those who are HIV-positive and Xpert-negative comprises clinical reassessment, chest radiograph (if available), sputum for mycobacterial culture, and treatment with antibiotic if clinically indicated. The aim of our study was to describe the diagnostic yield from an immediate repeat sputum tested with Xpert, compared to sequential further investigation guided by South African recommendations , amongst HIV-positive adults in South Africa being investigated for TB whose initial sputum Xpert result is negative. It was a sub-study of “Xpert for people attending HIV/AIDS care: test or review?” (XPHACTOR), a prospective cohort study evaluating a risk-based algorithm to prioritise Xpert testing amongst adults attending for routine HIV care in South Africa. This dataset contains data for 227 adults attending for routine HIV care who have an initial negative sputum Xpert result. It includes basic demographics, TB diagnoses, mycobacteriology and chest radiograph results. Data was collected for the purpose of HIV and TB research and can only be reused for related research, in accordance with the participant consent agreement

    XPHACTOR Clinical Score dataset

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    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for regular tuberculosis (TB) screening of HIV-positive individuals with Xpert MTB/RIF as the first diagnostic test has major resource implications. The aim of our study was to develop a score, comprising elements readily available in primary care, to predict probability of TB in adults attending for routine HIV care screened for TB and found WHO tool positive. We used data collected for “Xpert for people attending HIV/AIDS care: test or review?” (XPHACTOR), a prospective cohort study evaluating a risk-based algorithm to prioritise Xpert MTB/RIF testing amongst adults attending for routine HIV care in South Africa, to develop and validate our clinical score. This dataset contains data for 1,048 HIV-positive adults attending for routine HIV care and reporting ≥1 symptom on the WHO screening tool. The dataset is split 50:50 to derive, and internally validate the prediction model. It includes basic demographics, TB diagnoses, and candidate predictors considered for the score. Data was collected for the purpose of HIV and TB research and can only be reused for related research, in accordance with the participant consent agreement

    Attendance versus compliance with tuberculosis treatment in an occupational setting a pilot study

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    Aim. To determine the prevalence of non-compliance with tuberculosis treatment at Freegold Mines.Objectives. 1. To establish the rates of attendance and collection of anti-tuberculosis drugs. 2. To detennine prevalence of non-compliance by means of urine tests.Design. A cross-sectional study conducted over 2 weeks at mine medical stations.Method. Urine samples were collected from tuberculosis patients 3 hours after drug ingestion. Non-compliance was established by testing these samples for rifampicin and/or isoniazid (INH) metabolites. Non-compliance was defined as a negative urine test result for these drugs in participants whose treatment regimens included one or both. Daily attendance and collection of drugs statistics are recorded in the medical station tuberculosis register. The patient rate of adherence was calculated as the observed number of days on which medication had been collected over the expected treatment days in a given period.Results. Urine test results showed an overall prevalence of non-compliance of 14.6 ± 3.3%, The study showed that non-compliance with tuberculosis treatment was underestimated by the surveillance data, The rate of nonadherence with treatment established from the formal surveillance procedure was 0.2%. The poor response rate of patients was found to be a major problem and fewer than 40% per day returned to bring urine specimens. The mean prevalences of non-compliance established by rifampicin and INH tests were 19.5 ± 5.3% and 9.8 ± 3.9%, respectively, and these were significantly different (x2 = 7.44; P < 0.05). The proportion of false-positive results for INH and rifampicin urine tests were 21% (11/53) and 35%   (17/48), respectively, showing that some patients were taking the wrong treatment.Conclusions. It is clear that attendance at the clinics does not accurately reflect compliance. 80th programme compliance (dispensing of the correct treatment) and patient compliance need to be improved. This has important implications for the new national tuberculosis control policy adopted by the South African government that stresses the importance of directly observed therapy, short-course (DOTS) and a patient-centred approach

    Stable incidence rates of tuberculosis (TB) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative South African gold miners during a decade of epidemic HIV-associated TB.

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    During the last decade, annual tuberculosis (TB) case-notification rates increased 4-fold, to >4000 cases/100000 person-years, in the study workforce, among whom prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was 30% in 2000. Three separate cohort studies, totalling 6454 HIV-negative participants, were combined and analyzed for time trends. Observed incidence of TB varied between 962 (1991-1994) and 1589 (1999-2000) cases/100000 person-years (P=.17, test for trend). There was, however, a progressive increase in age, and, for each period, older age was associated with increased incidence rates of TB (P<.001). Having adjusted for age differences, there was no significant association between incidence of TB and calendar period (P=.81, test for trend). Relative to 1991-1994, multivariate-adjusted incidence-rate ratios were 0.94, for 1995-1997, 0.96, for 1998-1999, and 1.05, for 1999-2000. Preventing a secondary epidemic of TB among HIV-negative individuals may be achievable with conventional means, even in settings with a high burden of HIV-associated TB

    Trends in silicosis prevalence and the healthy worker effect among gold miners in South Africa: a prevalence study with follow up of employment status.

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    BACKGROUND: Given the intimate association between silicosis and tuberculosis, understanding the epidemiology of the South African gold mining industry silicosis epidemic is essential to current initiatives to control both silicosis and tuberculosis in this population, one of the most heavily affected globally. The study's objectives were to compare the prevalence of silicosis among working black gold miners in South Africa during 2004-2009 to that of previous studies, including autopsy series, and to analyse the influence of silicosis and/or tuberculosis on exiting employment. METHODS: Routine chest radiographs from a cohort of gold miners were read for silicosis by an experienced reader (I), and a subset re-read by a B-trained reader (II). Two methods of presenting the readings were used. Additionally, with baseline status of silicosis and previous or active tuberculosis as predictors, survival analysis examined the probability of exiting the workforce for any reason during 2006-2011. RESULTS: Reader I read 11 557 chest radiographs and reader II re-read 841. Overall, silicosis prevalence (ILO ≥ 1/0: 5.7 and 6.2% depending on reader method) was similar to the age adjusted prevalence found in a large study in 1984 (5.0%). When comparison was restricted to a single mine shaft previously studied in 2000, a decline in prevalence (ILO ≥ 1/1) was suggested for one of the reading methods (duration adjusted 20.5% vs. 13.0% in the current study). These findings are discordant with a long-term rising autopsy prevalence of silicosis over this period. Overall, relative to miners with neither disease, the adjusted hazard ratio for exiting employment during the follow-up period was 1.54 for baseline silicosis [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 2.04], 1.71 for tuberculosis (95% CI 1.51, 1.94) and 1.53 for combined disease (95% CI 1.20, 1.96). CONCLUSIONS: This study found, a) there was no significant decline in overall silicosis prevalence among working black miners in the South African gold mining industry between 1984 and 2004-2009, and b) a possible decline at one mine shaft more recently. In the absence of evidence of declining respirable silica concentrations between the 1980s and 2000s, the trends found are plausibly due to a healthy worker survivor effect, which may be accelerating

    Linkage to care among adults being investigated for tuberculosis in South Africa: pilot study of a case manager intervention.

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    OBJECTIVES: We piloted an intervention to determine if support from a case manager would assist adults being investigated for tuberculosis (TB) to link into TB and HIV care. DESIGN: Pilot interventional cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Patients identified by primary healthcare clinic staff in South Africa as needing TB investigations were enrolled. INTERVENTION: Participants were supported for 3 months by case managers who facilitated the care pathway by promoting HIV testing, getting laboratory results, calling patients to return for results and facilitating treatment initiation. OUTCOMES MEASURED: Linkage to TB care was defined as starting TB treatment within 28 days in those with a positive test result; linkage to HIV care, for HIV-positive people, was defined as having blood taken for CD4 count and, for those eligible, starting antiretroviral therapy within 3 months. Intervention implementation was measured by number of attempts to contact participants. RESULTS: Among 562 participants (307 (54.6%) female, median age: 36 years (IQR 29-44)), most 477 (84.8%) had previously tested for HIV; of these, 328/475 (69.1%) self-reported being HIV-positive. Overall, 189/562 (33.6%) participants needed linkage to care (132 HIV care linkage only; 35 TB treatment linkage only; 22 both). Of 555 attempts to contact these 189 participants, 407 were to facilitate HIV care linkage, 78 for TB treatment linkage and 70 for both. At the end of 3-month follow-up, 40 participants had not linked to care (29 of the 132 (22.0%) participants needing linkage to HIV care only, 4 of the 35 (11.4%) needing to start on TB treatment only and 7 of the 22 (31.8%) needing both). CONCLUSION: Many people testing for TB need linkage to care. Despite case manager support, non-linkage into HIV care remained higher than desirable, suggesting a need to modify this intervention before implementation. Innovative strategies to enable linkage to care are needed

    Predictors of silicosis and variation in prevalence across mines among employed gold miners in South Africa

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    Background The stated intention to eliminate silicosis from the South African goldmining industry as well as current programmes to find and compensate ex-miners with silicosis require an understanding of variation in silicosis prevalence across the industry. We aimed to identify the predictors of radiological silicosis in a large sample of working miners across gold mines in South Africa. Methods Routine surveillance chest radiographs were collected from 15 goldmine “clusters” in a baseline survey undertaken in preparation for a separate tuberculosis isoniazid prophylaxis trial. All images were read for silicosis by a health professional experienced in using the International Labour Organisation (ILO) classification. Profusion thresholds of > 1/0 and > 1/1 were used. Demographic and occupational information was obtained by questionnaire. Predictors of silicosis were examined in a multivariable logistic regression model, including age, gender, racial ascription, country of origin, years since starting mine employment, mine shaft, skill category, underground work status and tuberculosis. Results The crude silicosis prevalence at ILO > 1/1 was 3.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5–4.1%]. The range across mine shafts was 0.8–6.9%. After adjustment for covariates, the interquartile range across shafts was reduced from 2.4 to 1.2%. Black miners [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.8; 95% CI 1.1–7.2] and miners in full-time underground work (aOR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3–3.4) had substantially elevated odds of silicosis, while workers from Mozambique had lower odds (aOR 0.54; 95% CI 0.38–0.77). Silicosis odds rose sharply with both age and years since starting in the industry (p for linear trend  15 years since first exposure and 2.2% < 10 years. Conclusions In surveillance of silicosis in working gold miners time since first exposure remains a powerful predictor. Age appears to be an independent predictor, while the detection of radiological silicosis in short-service miners requires attention. Public risk reporting by mines should include factors bearing on silicosis prevalence, specifically dust concentrations, with independent verification. Studies of silicosis and tuberculosis in ex-miners are needed, supported by an accessible electronic database of the relevant medical and dust exposure records of all gold miners

    Missed Opportunities for TB Investigation in Primary Care Clinics in South Africa: Experience from the XTEND Trial.

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    SETTING: 40 primary health clinics (PHCs) in four provinces in South Africa, June 2012 -February 2013. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether health care worker (HCW) practice in investigating people with TB symptoms was altered when the initial test for TB was changed from smear microscopy to Xpert MTB/RIF. DESIGN: Cross-sectional substudy at clinics participating in a pragmatic cluster randomised trial, Xpert for TB: Evaluating a New Diagnostic "XTEND", which evaluated the effect of Xpert MTB/RIF implementation in South Africa. METHODS: Consecutive adults exiting PHCs reporting at least one TB symptom (defined as any of cough, weight loss, night sweats and fever) were enrolled. The main outcome was the proportion who self-reported having sputum requested by HCW during the clinic encounter just completed. RESULTS: 3604 adults exiting PHCs (1676 in Xpert arm, 1928 in microscopy arm) were enrolled (median age 38 years, 71.4% female, 38.8% reported being HIV-positive, 70% reported cough). For 1267 participants (35.2%) the main reason for attending the clinic was TB symptom(s). Overall 2130/3604 (59.1%) said they reported their symptom(s) to HCW. 22.7% (818/3604) reported having been asked to give sputum for TB investigation. Though participants in the Xpert vs. microscopy arm were more likely to have sputum requested by HCW, this was not significantly different: overall (26.0% [436/1676] vs 19.8% [382/1928]; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 1.31, [95% CI 0.78-2.20]) and when restricted to those presenting at clinics due to symptoms (49.1% [260/530] vs 29.9% [220/737]; aPR 1.38 [0.89-2.13]) and those reporting being HIV-positive (29.4% [190/647] vs 20.8% [156/749]; aPR 1.38[0.88-2.16]). Those attending clinic due to TB symptoms, were more likely to have sputum requested if they had increasing number of symptoms; longer duration of cough, unintentional weight loss and night sweats and if they reported symptoms to HCW. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of people exiting PHCs reporting TB symptoms did not get tested. Implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF did not substantially change the probability of testing for TB. Better systems are needed to ensure that opportunities to identify active TB among PHC attendees are not missed