27 research outputs found

    Seasonal difference in tuberculosis notifications.

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    <p>Note.– The solid lines show the percentage of excess notifications compared to winter, the interrupted lines are the 95% confidence intervals. <b>A.</b> all notifications; <b>B.</b> pulmonary tuberculosis only; <b>C.</b> extra-pulmonary tuberculosis only; <b>D.</b> Non-UK-born cases only; <b>E.</b> UK-born cases only.</p

    Summary of patient characteristics.

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    *<p>Gender was missing in 19 cases.</p>**<p>Last five years of study only.</p>†<p>In those for whom country of birth is recorded, the five largest non-UK countries were Pakistan (35.8%), India (20.1%), Somalia (13.9%), Bangladesh (4.9%) and Zimbabwe (3.0%).</p>‡<p>18 cases did not have site of infection notified.</p

    Total hours of sunshine and tuberculosis notifications.

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    <p>Note.– The thin black line above is the tuberculosis incidence per season. The tuberculosis incidence has been decomposed into a trend component (the thick blue line above) and a stochastic seasonal component (the thick red line across the middle of the graph). The thick black line below is the total hours of sunshine per season shifted two seasons (six months) to the right. Thin vertical interrupted lines mark the winter troughs in hours of sunlight. The graph shows that troughs in the total hours of sunshine per season correlate with peaks in the number of tuberculosis notifications two seasons later.</p

    The Markov model used to assess costs and health gains for a melioidosis vaccine.

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    <p><i>M</i> denotes a Markov node where individuals can transition into the subsequent states in each monthly cycle. In each cycle a susceptible patient can be infected and develop a melioidosis episode, from which they can recover and return to the susceptible state in the next cycle, or die. Patients can also die from natural causes according to their age specific mortality rates.</p

    Cost-effectiveness of melioidosis vaccines as determined by incidence, cost, protective efficacy and protective duration.

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    <p>It was assumed that policy makers in Thailand were willing to pay $3,000 for an additional QALY gained. Areas in blue indicate where the vaccine is considered cost-effective in the Thai context. The protective efficacy (PE) and protective duration (PD) of the vaccine were considered as homogenous for all routes of disease acquisition. Percentage reduction of PE in this figure was considered as a combination of reduction in both disease incidence and mortality rate.</p

    Cost and deaths averted if a melioidosis vaccine<sup>a</sup> was implemented in NE Thailand.

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    a<p>The melioidosis vaccine was assumed to have 50% protective efficacy (reduction of disease incidence by 50% and reduction of mortality rate in diseased patients by 50%) and cost 5 dollars.</p

    International journal of antimicrobial agents

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    <p><b>VWF propeptide concentrations are elevated in melioidosis (A) and correlate with VWF antigen levels (B), but do not correlate with mortality (C).</b> VWF = von Willebrand factor. The data from 34 melioidosis patients (of whom 12 died) and 52 controls are presented as box plots with Tukey whiskers showing the smallest observation, lower quartile, median, upper quartile and largest observation. ***<i>P</i> <0.001 for the difference between patients and controls; (Student’s t-test); <i>P</i> = 0.21 for the difference between survivors (n = 22) and non-survivors (n = 12). For the scatter plot, each dot represents a single study subject from the patient group only (n = 34); the correlation coefficient and <i>*P</i> <0.05 reported are for Pearson’s <i>r</i>. The corresponding regression line for the scatter plot is drawn in bold, with the 95% confidence interval for the regression line marked by interrupted lines.</p

    Genes downregulated in melioidosis and tuberculosis, arranged by pathway.

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    <p>IFN = interferon, IGF = insulin-like growth factor, IL = interleukin, NF-κB = nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, PI3K = phosphoinositide 3-kinase, RNA = ribonucleic acid, TGF = transforming growth factor, TNF = tumour necrosis factor.</p><p>Note:– Genes names are those assigned by the HUGO gene nomenclature committee.</p

    Interferon signatures for melioidosis and tuberculosis.

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    <p>Note: The interferon signatures for melioidosis (<b>A</b>) and tuberculosis (<b>B</b>) are listed here (analysis from <a href="http://www.interferome.org" target="_blank">www.interferome.org</a>). Berry <i>et al.</i> noted that both type 1 and type 2 interferon responses were prominent in tuberculosis. We find that type 1 interferon responses appear in melioidosis also.</p
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