404 research outputs found

    Responsibly Including Survivors’ Voices in the Planning and Implementing of Educational Programmes for Healthcare Providers

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    Survivors’ experiences and input are essential for human trafficking education for healthcare providers yet they remain under-utilised. This article describes a collaborative initiative between two paediatric physicians and a survivor of trafficking, which led to the implementation of an anti-trafficking education programme for healthcare providers. It outlines the process of establishing the collaboration and the main principles of ensuring an equitable partnership. It shares the authors’ reflections of the process and their recommendations for others seeking to establish similar initiatives

    Different thresholds of T cell activation regulate FIV infection of CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− cells

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    AbstractCellular activation plays an important role in retroviral replication. Previously, we have shown that CD4+CD25+ T cells by the virtue of their partially activated phenotype represent ideal candidates for a productive feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. In the present study, we extended our previous observations with regard to FIV replication in CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− cells under different stimulation conditions. Both CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− cells remain latently infected in the absence of IL-2 or concanvalinA (ConA), respectively; harboring a replication competent provirus capable of reactivation several days post-infection. While CD4+CD25+ cells require low levels of exogenous IL-2 and virus inputs for an efficient FIV replication, CD4+CD25− T cells can only be productively infected in the presence of either high concentrations of IL-2 or high virus titers, even in the absence of mitogenic stimulation. Interestingly, while high virus input activates CD4+CD25− cells to replicate FIV, it induces apoptosis in a high percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells. High IL-2 concentrations but not high virus inputs lead to surface upregulation of CD25 and significant cellular proliferation in CD4+CD25− cells. These results suggest that CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− T cells have different activation requirements which can be modulated by both viral and cytokine stimuli to reach threshold activation levels in order to harbor a productive FIV infection. This holds implications in vivo for CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− cells to serve as potential reservoirs of a productive and latent FIV infection

    Single amino acid change in gp41 region of HIV-1 alters bystander apoptosis and CD4 decline in humanized mice

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The mechanism by which HIV infection leads to a selective depletion of CD4 cells leading to immunodeficiency remains highly debated. Whether the loss of CD4 cells is a direct consequence of virus infection or bystander apoptosis of uninfected cells is also uncertain.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We have addressed this issue in the humanized mouse model of HIV infection using a HIV variant with a point mutation in the gp41 region of the Env glycoprotein that alters its fusogenic activity. We demonstrate here that a single amino acid change (V38E) altering the cell-to-cell fusion activity of the Env minimizes CD4 loss in humanized mice without altering viral replication. This differential pathogenesis was associated with a lack of bystander apoptosis induction by V38E virus even in the presence of similar levels of infected cells. Interestingly, immune activation was observed with both WT and V38E infection suggesting that the two phenomena are likely not interdependent in the mouse model.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>We conclude that Env fusion activity is one of the determinants of HIV pathogenesis and it may be possible to attenuate HIV by targeting gp41.</p

    Fine-mapping of the HNF1B multicancer locus identifies candidate variants that mediate endometrial cancer risk.

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    Common variants in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1B) gene are associated with the risk of Type II diabetes and multiple cancers. Evidence to date indicates that cancer risk may be mediated via genetic or epigenetic effects on HNF1B gene expression. We previously found single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the HNF1B locus to be associated with endometrial cancer, and now report extensive fine-mapping and in silico and laboratory analyses of this locus. Analysis of 1184 genotyped and imputed SNPs in 6608 Caucasian cases and 37 925 controls, and 895 Asian cases and 1968 controls, revealed the best signal of association for SNP rs11263763 (P = 8.4 × 10(-14), odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.89), located within HNF1B intron 1. Haplotype analysis and conditional analyses provide no evidence of further independent endometrial cancer risk variants at this locus. SNP rs11263763 genotype was associated with HNF1B mRNA expression but not with HNF1B methylation in endometrial tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genetic analyses prioritized rs11263763 and four other SNPs in high-to-moderate linkage disequilibrium as the most likely causal SNPs. Three of these SNPs map to the extended HNF1B promoter based on chromatin marks extending from the minimal promoter region. Reporter assays demonstrated that this extended region reduces activity in combination with the minimal HNF1B promoter, and that the minor alleles of rs11263763 or rs8064454 are associated with decreased HNF1B promoter activity. Our findings provide evidence for a single signal associated with endometrial cancer risk at the HNF1B locus, and that risk is likely mediated via altered HNF1B gene expression

    Common variants in CLDN2 and MORC4 genes confer disease susceptibility in patients with chronic pancreatitis

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    A recent Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) identified association with variants in X-linked CLDN2 and MORC4 and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci with Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) in North American patients of European ancestry. We selected 9 variants from the reported GWAS and replicated the association with CP in Indian patients by genotyping 1807 unrelated Indians of Indo-European ethnicity, including 519 patients with CP and 1288 controls. The etiology of CP was idiopathic in 83.62% and alcoholic in 16.38% of 519 patients. Our study confirmed a significant association of 2 variants in CLDN2 gene (rs4409525—OR 1.71, P = 1.38 x 10-09; rs12008279—OR 1.56, P = 1.53 x 10-04) and 2 variants in MORC4 gene (rs12688220—OR 1.72, P = 9.20 x 10-09; rs6622126—OR 1.75, P = 4.04x10-05) in Indian patients with CP. We also found significant association at PRSS1-PRSS2 locus (OR 0.60; P = 9.92 x 10-06) and SAMD12-TNFRSF11B (OR 0.49, 95% CI [0.31–0.78], P = 0.0027). A variant in the gene MORC4 (rs12688220) showed significant interaction with alcohol (OR for homozygous and heterozygous risk allele -14.62 and 1.51 respectively, P = 0.0068) suggesting gene-environment interaction. A combined analysis of the genes CLDN2 and MORC4 based on an effective risk allele score revealed a higher percentage of individuals homozygous for the risk allele in CP cases with 5.09 fold enhanced risk in individuals with 7 or more effective risk alleles compared with individuals with 3 or less risk alleles (P = 1.88 x 10-14). Genetic variants in CLDN2 and MORC4 genes were associated with CP in Indian patients

    Persistencia de malezas gramíneas en cultivos de trigo del sudeste bonaerense

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    En la presente tesis se estudió la persistencia de especies poáceas en cultivos de trigo del sudeste de Buenos Aires. En dicha región, Avena fatua L. y Lolium multiflorum Lam. son las malezas poáceas más importantes, tanto por la dificultad de control como por sus efectos competitivos sobre el cultivo. A los efectos de cuantificar la persistencia de dichas especies, se estudió la composición de la comunidad de malezas en dos momentos del ciclo: preaplicación de herbicidas y precosecha. Individuos de ambas malezas fueron registrados en ambos momentos como consecuencia de “escapes” al control realizado con herbicidas, siendo A. fatua más constante que L. mutiflorum. Posteriormente, se estudiaron los procesos que definen la persistencia de ambas malezas. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el ajuste del momento de emergencia es jerárquicamente el factor más importante para explicar la persistencia de A. fatua. Se demostró que los modelos de germinación son diferentes según las semillas provengan de un lote agrícola o de una condición de no cultivo, siendo estas diferencias de naturaleza genética. Por otro lado, la variabilidad en la supervivencia a los herbicidas es el factor que mejor explica la persistencia de L. multiflorum, habiéndose documentado resistencia cruzada a los herbicidas inhibidores de la ALS, pyroxsulam, imazamox y flucarbazone, sin antecedentes previos en la región. Los índices de resistencia encontrados presentan variación con la temperatura ambiente en post-aplicación del herbicida, habiéndose registrado mayor resistencia con mayor temperatura. Además, se comprobó que los individuos resistentes presentan menor tiempo a floración que los susceptibles. Tal atributo puede significar una ventaja demográfica para dichas poblaciones. Queda así demostrada la persistencia de A. fatua y L. multiflorum durante el ciclo del cultivo más allá de las prácticas de control realizadas y la participación de dos procesos demográficos distintos (establecimiento y supervivencia) en dicha persistencia

    Production of He-4 and (4) in Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S=2.76 TeV at the LHC

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    Results on the production of He-4 and (4) nuclei in Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S = 2.76 TeV in the rapidity range vertical bar y vertical bar <1, using the ALICE detector, are presented in this paper. The rapidity densities corresponding to 0-10% central events are found to be dN/dy4(He) = (0.8 +/- 0.4 (stat) +/- 0.3 (syst)) x 10(-6) and dN/dy4 = (1.1 +/- 0.4 (stat) +/- 0.2 (syst)) x 10(-6), respectively. This is in agreement with the statistical thermal model expectation assuming the same chemical freeze-out temperature (T-chem = 156 MeV) as for light hadrons. The measured ratio of (4)/He-4 is 1.4 +/- 0.8 (stat) +/- 0.5 (syst). (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V.Peer reviewe

    Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in COVID-19.

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    Host-mediated lung inflammation is present1, and drives mortality2, in the critical illness caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Host genetic variants associated with critical illness may identify mechanistic targets for therapeutic development3. Here we report the results of the GenOMICC (Genetics Of Mortality In Critical Care) genome-wide association study in 2,244 critically ill patients with COVID-19 from 208 UK intensive care units. We have identified and replicated the following new genome-wide significant associations: on chromosome 12q24.13 (rs10735079, P = 1.65 × 10-8) in a gene cluster that encodes antiviral restriction enzyme activators (OAS1, OAS2 and OAS3); on chromosome 19p13.2 (rs74956615, P = 2.3 × 10-8) near the gene that encodes tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2); on chromosome 19p13.3 (rs2109069, P = 3.98 ×  10-12) within the gene that encodes dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9); and on chromosome 21q22.1 (rs2236757, P = 4.99 × 10-8) in the interferon receptor gene IFNAR2. We identified potential targets for repurposing of licensed medications: using Mendelian randomization, we found evidence that low expression of IFNAR2, or high expression of TYK2, are associated with life-threatening disease; and transcriptome-wide association in lung tissue revealed that high expression of the monocyte-macrophage chemotactic receptor CCR2 is associated with severe COVID-19. Our results identify robust genetic signals relating to key host antiviral defence mechanisms and mediators of inflammatory organ damage in COVID-19. Both mechanisms may be amenable to targeted treatment with existing drugs. However, large-scale randomized clinical trials will be essential before any change to clinical practice
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