3,096 research outputs found

    Representation of memory for order of mental operations in cognitive tasks

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    Journal ArticleRecent research shows that people learning a cognitive task acquire a memory for the order of operations applied, independent of the data to which those operations were applied. We designed two experiments to show how this sequence memory is represented. Experiment 1 compared predictions based on 3 possible sequence representation methods: composition, dyad transition, and associative chain. Latency and error results from a simple sequential task supported the associative chain representation. The associative links between operations presumably enhance performance by priming subsequent operations but do not operate in an all-or-none fashion. Experiment 2 explored whether transfer items that matched the first 2 rules and first 3 elements of a training item could bias participants toward executing a composed production learned during training. Latency and undetected error results were consistent with an associative chain representation but not with additional predictions made by the composition representation. These two experiments support the representation of operation sequences in memory as an associative chain

    Maximum Penetration of Atmospheric Gravity Waves Observed During ALOHA-93

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    Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs) are subject to altitude propagation limits which are governed by the diffusion processes. Diffusion times and scales which exceed the wave period and wavelength define the limiting domain for AGWs. An expression is presented which defines the upper altitude limit to which AGWs can propagate given vertical diffusion constraints of the atmosphere. Airglow, lidar, and radar measurements are combined to characterize the intrinsic AGW parameters in the 80–105 km altitude region. A subset of AGWs (17) observed by airglow imagers during the ALOHA‐93 were made when simultaneous wind measurements were available and intrinsic wave parameters were calculated. The limiting altitude of propagation for these measured monochromatic waves is calculated to range from 110–150 km (with a mean limiting altitude of 130 km). The altitude limit is necessarily lower for waves with short vertical wavelengths and longer intrinsic periods. This observation is important for a large number of issues including energetic considerations regarding thermospheric heating in models which consider upward propagating AGWs (and energy flux) of tropospheric origin. This limited data base should be expanded for statistical significance in future work

    Does effective population size affect rates of molecular evolution : mitochondrial data for host/parasite species pairs in bees suggests not

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    Adaptive evolutionary theory argues that organisms with larger effective population size (Ne) should have higher rates of adaptive evolution and therefore greater capacity to win evolutionary arm races. However, in some certain cases, species with much smaller Ne may be able to survive besides their opponents for an extensive evolutionary time. Neutral theory predicts that accelerated rates of molecular evolution in organisms with exceedingly small Ne are due to the effects of genetic drift and fixation of slightly deleterious mutations. We test this prediction in two obligate social parasite species and their respective host species from the bee tribe Allodapini. The parasites (genus Inquilina) have been locked into tight coevolutionary arm races with their exclusive hosts (genus Exoneura) for ~15 million years, even though Inquilina exhibit Ne that are an order of magnitude smaller than their host. In this study, we compared rates of molecular evolution between host and parasite using nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios (dN/dS) of eleven mitochondrial protein-coding genes sequenced from transcriptomes. Tests of selection on mitochondrial genes indicated no significant differences between host and parasite dN/dS, with evidence for purifying selection acting on all mitochondrial genes of host and parasite species. Several potential factors which could weaken the inverse relationship between Ne and rate of molecular evolution are discussed

    ALOHA-93 Measurements of Intrinsic AGW Characteristics Using the Airborne Airglow Imager and Groundbased Na Wind/Temperature Lidar

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    Monochromatic Acoustic Gravity Waves (AGWs) with periods \u3c 1 hour are a prevalent feature in the mesospheric airglow layers. These waves are important dynamically and energetically to the region where their temporal and spatial morphology are not well established. The purpose of this study is establish the intrinsic AGW characteristics over an extended region (as flown by the NCAR Electra aircraft) and to present the data in terms of the predicted spectral domain defined by the Brunt‐Vaisala frequency and the diffusive filtering limit proposed by Gardner [1994]. On October 21, 1993, observations were made from the NCAR Electra aircraft during a 6 hour flight in a large triangle N and W of Maui, for a integral distance of ∼3000 km. The entire area observed [∼1 M km²] had a monochromatic AGW propagating toward the NW and the western half had a SW propagating wave superimposed. These waves were also observed with the Michelson interferometer on the aircraft and an airglow imager at the Haleakala location during this time. Intrinsic phase velocities were computed where the Na Wind/Temperature (W/T) lidar at Haleakala provided a measure of the mean wind to compensate phase velocities observed with the imager. The data were tabulated and plotted in an AGW spectral reference frame and compared to cutoff conditions predicted by diffusive filtering theory
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