39 research outputs found

    An Approach to the Human Resource Development and Performance Appraisal of Teachers Working In Colleges of Education

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    Human resource development is considered as the key to higher productivity, better relations and greater profitability for any organization. As far as the dimensions/components/sub-systems of human resource development are concerned, various thinkers and professionals have given divergent views and designed the mechanism of human resource development in different ways. Rao (1988) opines that human resource development sub-systems comprise performance appraisal, potential appraisal, career planning, training, performance coaching, organization development, employee welfare, rewards, qualities of work life and human resource information system. Teacher's Performance Appraisal or Evaluation means a systematic evaluation of the teacher with respect to teacher educators performance on job and also potent development. Infact, performance appraisal is formal, structured system of measuring, assessing and evaluating a teacher's job, behaviour and judging how they presently performing the job. It also includes forecasting how can perform the job more effectively in future

    FishMORPH - An agent-based model to predict salmonid growth and distribution responses under natural and low flows.

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    Predicting fish responses to modified flow regimes is becoming central to fisheries management. In this study we present an agent-based model (ABM) to predict the growth and distribution of young-of-the-year (YOY) and one-year-old (1+) Atlantic salmon and brown trout in response to flow change during summer. A field study of a real population during both natural and low flow conditions provided the simulation environment and validation patterns. Virtual fish were realistic both in terms of bioenergetics and feeding. We tested alternative movement rules to replicate observed patterns of body mass, growth rates, stretch distribution and patch occupancy patterns. Notably, there was no calibration of the model. Virtual fish prioritising consumption rates before predator avoidance replicated observed growth and distribution patterns better than a purely maximising consumption rule. Stream conditions of low predation and harsh winters provide ecological justification for the selection of this behaviour during summer months. Overall, the model was able to predict distribution and growth patterns well across both natural and low flow regimes. The model can be used to support management of salmonids by predicting population responses to predicted flow impacts and associated habitat change

    Impacts of the invader giant reed (Arundo donax) on riparian habitats and ground arthropod communities

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    Riparian areas have experienced long-term anthropogenic impacts including the effects of plant introductions. In this study, 27 plots were surveyed across three Mediterranean rivers in north-eastern Spain to explore the effects of the invader giant reed (Arundo donax) on riparian habitat features and the diversity, trophic structure, body size, and abundances of epigeal and hypogeal arthropods in riparian areas. Using pitfall traps and Berlese funnels, this study detected a significant increase in collembola abundance and a decrease in the abundance, body size and diversity of macro-arthropods at order and family levels in invaded plots compared to native stands. Invaded and un-invaded areas also differed in the taxonomical structure of arthropod assemblies but not in trophic guild proportions. However, the fact that arthropods were smaller in A. donax soils, together with the absence of particular taxa within each trophic guild or even an entire trophic group (parasitoids), suggests that food-web alterations in invaded areas cannot be discarded. Habitat features also differed between invaded and un-invaded areas with the poorest herbaceous understory and the largest leaf litter deposition and soil carbon stock observed in A. donax plots. The type of vegetation in riparian areas followed by the total native plant species richness were identified as major causal factors to changes in the abundance, diversity and composition of macro-arthropods. However, our analyses also showed that some alterations related to A. donax invasion were inconsistent across rivers, suggesting that A. donax effects may be context dependent. In conclusion, this study highlights an impoverishment of native flora and arthropod fauna in A. donax soils, and suggests major changes in riparian food webs if A. donax displaces native riparian vegetatio

    A STUDY OF QUALITY INDICATORS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF HEADS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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    A good quality education is one that enables all learners to realise the capabilities they   require to become economically productive, develop sustainable livelihoods, contribute to peaceful and democratic societies and enhance wellbeing. The learning outcomes that are required vary according to context but at the end of the basic education cycle must include threshold levels of literacy and numeracy and life skills including awareness and prevention of disease.” (Tikly, 2010). Education quality programme encourages policy makers to take cognisance of changing national development needs, the kinds of schools that different learners attend and the forms of educational disadvantage faced by different groups of learners when considering policy options. A good quality education arises from interactions between three overlapping environments, namely the policy, the school and the home/ community environments. Creating enabling environments requires the right mix of inputs into each. the Education quality framework highlights the importance of accompanying processes within each environment that are key for ensuring that inputs get converted into desired outcomes. (Tikly, 2010). Creating a good quality education involves paying attention to the interface between each environment and ensuring that enabling inputs and processes have the effect of closing the gaps that often exist between them creating greater synergy and coherence

    Human Resource Development of Teacher Educators in Colleges of Education

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    This paper explores human resource as an integral force in a society. Though it has many faceted aims and objectives, the significant aim is to develop the human resource in schools and colleges. A country may have well-defined policy infrastructure facilities, well-equipped laboratories and libraries, but it can hardly achieve its educational goals unless it has committed teachers. In recent years considerable concern has been felt in the sphere of teacher education. Its role to develop the human resources in schools and colleges is greatly emphasized. Training needs can be aptly explained as the gap between the requirements for skills and  knowledge inherent in the job and those possessed by the current jobholder. Teacher educators working in teacher education colleges need through training in their teaching skills and knowledge. From the findings of this paper it is observed that teacher educators irrespective of their age, gender, designation, subject specialization have shown their bent of mind about the need for training in their profession. So in order to gear up their potential abilities in the field of their workplace, intensive training through refresher and orientation courses is the need of the hour

    A vision for technology in education: learning in the 21st century

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    Given the realities of globalization, knowledge work, and accelerating societal change, it's obvious that what students learn—as well as how and when they learn—is changing. Technology influences learning in three significant ways. A synthesis of recent research and national skill sets shows that technology can be: • a driver of change, • a bridge to academic excellence, and • a platform for informed decision making and accountability: A change is there in the role of teachers from "sages on the stage" to mentors, researchers, publishers, technology users, knowledge producers, risk takers and lifelong learners. Administrators and managers need professional development as much as their staff. Managers need to provide teachers with adequate training and support to effectively use the technology in their classrooms. In effect, managers must provide the vision of change that includes empowering teachers and learners in new ways and then must learn how effectively to manage these empowered teachers and learners. Education technology has been found to have positive effects on student attitudes towards learning and on student self-concept. Students felt more successful in school, were more motivated to learn and have increased self-confidence and self-esteem when using computer-based instruction. This was particularly true when the technology allowed learners to control their own learning. Moreover, information technology is the force mat revolutionizes business, streamlines government and enables instant communications and the exchange of information among people and institutions around the world. Technology can be the "revolutionary force" that instigates and supports reform by teachers and administrators at the school level

    Food web dynamics in an Australian Wet Tropics river

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    In Australia’s Wet Tropics rivers, perennial base flows punctuated by wet season floods drive instream responses across a range of spatial and temporal scales. We combined gut-content and stable-isotope analyses to produce preliminary webs depicting trophic links between fish, their main prey items and basal productivity sources. We then used these webs to test the applicability of general food web principles developed in other tropical systems. Although a range of sources appeared to underpin fish productivity, a large portion of total energy transfer occurred through a subset of trophic links. Variability in food web structure was negatively correlated with spatial scale, being seasonally stable at river reaches and variable at smaller scales. Wet Tropics rivers are similar to those in other tropical areas, but exhibit some unique characteristics. Their high degree of channel incision improves longitudinal connectivity, thereby allowing fish to move between mesohabitats and target their preferred prey items, rather than shifting their diet as resources fluctuate. However, this also inhibits lateral connectivity and limits terrestrial energy inputs from beyond the littoral zone

    The Cercal Organ May Provide Singing Tettigoniids a Backup Sensory System for the Detection of Eavesdropping Bats

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    Conspicuous signals, such as the calling songs of tettigoniids, are intended to attract mates but may also unintentionally attract predators. Among them bats that listen to prey-generated sounds constitute a predation pressure for many acoustically communicating insects as well as frogs. As an adaptation to protect against bat predation many insect species evolved auditory sensitivity to bat-emitted echolocation signals. Recently, the European mouse-eared bat species Myotis myotis and M. blythii oxygnathus were found to eavesdrop on calling songs of the tettigoniid Tettigonia cantans. These gleaning bats emit rather faint echolocation signals when approaching prey and singing insects may have difficulty detecting acoustic predator-related signals. The aim of this study was to determine (1) if loud self-generated sound produced by European tettigoniids impairs the detection of pulsed ultrasound and (2) if wind-sensors on the cercal organ function as a sensory backup system for bat detection in tettigoniids. We addressed these questions by combining a behavioral approach to study the response of two European tettigoniid species to pulsed ultrasound, together with an electrophysiological approach to record the activity of wind-sensitive interneurons during real attacks of the European mouse-eared bat species Myotis myotis. Results showed that singing T. cantans males did not respond to sequences of ultrasound pulses, whereas singing T. viridissima did respond with predominantly brief song pauses when ultrasound pulses fell into silent intervals or were coincident with the production of soft hemi-syllables. This result, however, strongly depended on ambient temperature with a lower probability for song interruption observable at 21°C compared to 28°C. Using extracellular recordings, dorsal giant interneurons of tettigoniids were shown to fire regular bursts in response to attacking bats. Between the first response of wind-sensitive interneurons and contact, a mean time lag of 860 ms was found. This time interval corresponds to a bat-to-prey distance of ca. 72 cm. This result demonstrates the efficiency of the cercal system of tettigoniids in detecting attacking bats and suggests this sensory system to be particularly valuable for singing insects that are targeted by eavesdropping bats
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