26 research outputs found

    Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of chewing tobacco use in 204 countries and territories, 1990�2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background: Chewing tobacco and other types of smokeless tobacco use have had less attention from the global health community than smoked tobacco use. However, the practice is popular in many parts of the world and has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. Understanding trends in prevalence with age, over time, and by location and sex is important for policy setting and in relation to monitoring and assessing commitment to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: We estimated prevalence of chewing tobacco use as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 using a modelling strategy that used information on multiple types of smokeless tobacco products. We generated a time series of prevalence of chewing tobacco use among individuals aged 15 years and older from 1990 to 2019 in 204 countries and territories, including age-sex specific estimates. We also compared these trends to those of smoked tobacco over the same time period. Findings: In 2019, 273·9 million (95 uncertainty interval 258·5 to 290·9) people aged 15 years and older used chewing tobacco, and the global age-standardised prevalence of chewing tobacco use was 4·72 (4·46 to 5·01). 228·2 million (213·6 to 244·7; 83·29 82·15 to 84·42) chewing tobacco users lived in the south Asia region. Prevalence among young people aged 15�19 years was over 10% in seven locations in 2019. Although global age-standardised prevalence of smoking tobacco use decreased significantly between 1990 and 2019 (annualised rate of change: �1·21% �1·26 to �1·16), similar progress was not observed for chewing tobacco (0·46% 0·13 to 0·79). Among the 12 highest prevalence countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Madagascar, Marshall Islands, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Palau, Sri Lanka, and Yemen), only Yemen had a significant decrease in the prevalence of chewing tobacco use, which was among males between 1990 and 2019 (�0·94% �1·72 to �0·14), compared with nine of 12 countries that had significant decreases in the prevalence of smoking tobacco. Among females, none of these 12 countries had significant decreases in prevalence of chewing tobacco use, whereas seven of 12 countries had a significant decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking use for the period. Interpretation: Chewing tobacco remains a substantial public health problem in several regions of the world, and predominantly in south Asia. We found little change in the prevalence of chewing tobacco use between 1990 and 2019, and that control efforts have had much larger effects on the prevalence of smoking tobacco use than on chewing tobacco use in some countries. Mitigating the health effects of chewing tobacco requires stronger regulations and policies that specifically target use of chewing tobacco, especially in countries with high prevalence. Funding: Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 licens

    Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of chewing tobacco use in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: A systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background Chewing tobacco and other types of smokeless tobacco use have had less attention from the global health community than smoked tobacco use. However, the practice is popular in many parts of the world and has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. Understanding trends in prevalence with age, over time, and by location and sex is important for policy setting and in relation to monitoring and assessing commitment to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods We estimated prevalence of chewing tobacco use as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 using a modelling strategy that used information on multiple types of smokeless tobacco products. We generated a time series of prevalence of chewing tobacco use among individuals aged 15 years and older from 1990 to 2019 in 204 countries and territories, including age-sex specific estimates. We also compared these trends to those of smoked tobacco over the same time period. Findings In 2019, 273·9 million (95% uncertainty interval 258·5 to 290·9) people aged 15 years and older used chewing tobacco, and the global age-standardised prevalence of chewing tobacco use was 4·72% (4·46 to 5·01). 228·2 million (213·6 to 244·7; 83·29% [82·15 to 84·42]) chewing tobacco users lived in the south Asia region. Prevalence among young people aged 15–19 years was over 10% in seven locations in 2019. Although global age-standardised prevalence of smoking tobacco use decreased significantly between 1990 and 2019 (annualised rate of change: –1·21% [–1·26 to –1·16]), similar progress was not observed for chewing tobacco (0·46% [0·13 to 0·79]). Among the 12 highest prevalence countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Madagascar, Marshall Islands, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Palau, Sri Lanka, and Yemen), only Yemen had a significant decrease in the prevalence of chewing tobacco use, which was among males between 1990 and 2019 (−0·94% [–1·72 to –0·14]), compared with nine of 12 countries that had significant decreases in the prevalence of smoking tobacco. Among females, none of these 12 countries had significant decreases in prevalence of chewing tobacco use, whereas seven of 12 countries had a significant decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking use for the period. Interpretation Chewing tobacco remains a substantial public health problem in several regions of the world, and predominantly in south Asia. We found little change in the prevalence of chewing tobacco use between 1990 and 2019, and that control efforts have had much larger effects on the prevalence of smoking tobacco use than on chewing tobacco use in some countries. Mitigating the health effects of chewing tobacco requires stronger regulations and policies that specifically target use of chewing tobacco, especially in countries with high prevalence

    Global, regional, and national progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 for neonatal and child health: all-cause and cause-specific mortality findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential trajectories of child mortality for the next decade, we present the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 findings for all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in children younger than 5 years of age, with multiple scenarios for child mortality in 2030 that include the consideration of potential effects of COVID-19, and a novel framework for quantifying optimal child survival. Methods We completed all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality analyses from 204 countries and territories for detailed age groups separately, with aggregated mortality probabilities per 1000 livebirths computed for neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR). Scenarios for 2030 represent different potential trajectories, notably including potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact of improvements preferentially targeting neonatal survival. Optimal child survival metrics were developed by age, sex, and cause of death across all GBD location-years. The first metric is a global optimum and is based on the lowest observed mortality, and the second is a survival potential frontier that is based on stochastic frontier analysis of observed mortality and Healthcare Access and Quality Index. Findings Global U5MR decreased from 71·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 68·3–74·0) in 2000 to 37·1 (33·2–41·7) in 2019 while global NMR correspondingly declined more slowly from 28·0 deaths per 1000 live births (26·8–29·5) in 2000 to 17·9 (16·3–19·8) in 2019. In 2019, 136 (67%) of 204 countries had a U5MR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold and 133 (65%) had an NMR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold, and the reference scenario suggests that by 2030, 154 (75%) of all countries could meet the U5MR targets, and 139 (68%) could meet the NMR targets. Deaths of children younger than 5 years totalled 9·65 million (95% UI 9·05–10·30) in 2000 and 5·05 million (4·27–6·02) in 2019, with the neonatal fraction of these deaths increasing from 39% (3·76 million [95% UI 3·53–4·02]) in 2000 to 48% (2·42 million; 2·06–2·86) in 2019. NMR and U5MR were generally higher in males than in females, although there was no statistically significant difference at the global level. Neonatal disorders remained the leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in 2019, followed by lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, congenital birth defects, and malaria. The global optimum analysis suggests NMR could be reduced to as low as 0·80 (95% UI 0·71–0·86) deaths per 1000 livebirths and U5MR to 1·44 (95% UI 1·27–1·58) deaths per 1000 livebirths, and in 2019, there were as many as 1·87 million (95% UI 1·35–2·58; 37% [95% UI 32–43]) of 5·05 million more deaths of children younger than 5 years than the survival potential frontier. Interpretation Global child mortality declined by almost half between 2000 and 2019, but progress remains slower in neonates and 65 (32%) of 204 countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, are not on track to meet either SDG 3.2 target by 2030. Focused improvements in perinatal and newborn care, continued and expanded delivery of essential interventions such as vaccination and infection prevention, an enhanced focus on equity, continued focus on poverty reduction and education, and investment in strengthening health systems across the development spectrum have the potential to substantially improve U5MR. Given the widespread effects of COVID-19, considerable effort will be required to maintain and accelerate progress

    Causes of blindness and vision impairment in 2020 and trends over 30 years, and prevalence of avoidable blindness in relation to VISION 2020: The Right to Sight: An analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study

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    Background: Many causes of vision impairment can be prevented or treated. With an ageing global population, the demands for eye health services are increasing. We estimated the prevalence and relative contribution of avoidable causes of blindness and vision impairment globally from 1990 to 2020. We aimed to compare the results with the World Health Assembly Global Action Plan (WHA GAP) target of a 25% global reduction from 2010 to 2019 in avoidable vision impairment, defined as cataract and undercorrected refractive error. Methods: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based surveys of eye disease from January, 1980, to October, 2018. We fitted hierarchical models to estimate prevalence (with 95% uncertainty intervals [UIs]) of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity from <6/18 to 3/60) and blindness (<3/60 or less than 10° visual field around central fixation) by cause, age, region, and year. Because of data sparsity at younger ages, our analysis focused on adults aged 50 years and older. Findings: Global crude prevalence of avoidable vision impairment and blindness in adults aged 50 years and older did not change between 2010 and 2019 (percentage change −0·2% [95% UI −1·5 to 1·0]; 2019 prevalence 9·58 cases per 1000 people [95% IU 8·51 to 10·8], 2010 prevalence 96·0 cases per 1000 people [86·0 to 107·0]). Age-standardised prevalence of avoidable blindness decreased by −15·4% [–16·8 to −14·3], while avoidable MSVI showed no change (0·5% [–0·8 to 1·6]). However, the number of cases increased for both avoidable blindness (10·8% [8·9 to 12·4]) and MSVI (31·5% [30·0 to 33·1]). The leading global causes of blindness in those aged 50 years and older in 2020 were cataract (15·2 million cases [9% IU 12·7–18·0]), followed by glaucoma (3·6 million cases [2·8–4·4]), undercorrected refractive error (2·3 million cases [1·8–2·8]), age-related macular degeneration (1·8 million cases [1·3–2·4]), and diabetic retinopathy (0·86 million cases [0·59–1·23]). Leading causes of MSVI were undercorrected refractive error (86·1 million cases [74·2–101·0]) and cataract (78·8 million cases [67·2–91·4]). Interpretation: Results suggest eye care services contributed to the observed reduction of age-standardised rates of avoidable blindness but not of MSVI, and that the target in an ageing global population was not reached. Funding: Brien Holden Vision Institute, Fondation Théa, The Fred Hollows Foundation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Lions Clubs International Foundation, Sightsavers International, and University of Heidelberg. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 licens

    Association between Features of Spontaneous Late Preterm Labor and Late Preterm Birth

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    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the association between clinical and examination features at admission and late preterm birth. Study Design The present study is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of singleton pregnancies at 34 0/7 to 36 5/7 weeks' gestation. We included women in spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes and compared them by gestational age at delivery (preterm vs. term). We calculated a statistical cut-point optimizing the sensitivity and specificity of initial cervical dilation and effacement at predicting preterm birth and used multivariable regression to identify factors associated with late preterm delivery. Results A total of 431 out of 732 (59%) women delivered preterm. Cervical dilation ≥ 4 cm was 60% sensitive and 68% specific for late preterm birth. Cervical effacement ≥ 75% was 59% sensitive and 65% specific for late preterm birth. Earlier gestational age at randomization, nulliparity, and fetal malpresentation were associated with late preterm birth. The final regression model including clinical and examination features significantly improved late preterm birth prediction (81% sensitivity, 48% specificity, area under the curve = 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68-0.75, and p -value &lt; 0.01). Conclusion Four in 10 women in late-preterm labor subsequently delivered at term. Combination of examination and clinical features (including parity and gestational age) improved late-preterm birth prediction

    Efficient transplacental IgG transfer in women infected with Zika virus during pregnancy

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    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a newly-identified infectious cause of congenital disease. Transplacental transfer of maternal IgG to the fetus plays an important role in preventing many neonatal infections. However, antibody transfer may also have negative consequences, such as mediating enhancement of flavivirus infections in early life, or trafficking of virus immune complexes to the fetal compartment. ZIKV infection produces placental pathology which could lead to impaired IgG transfer efficiency as occurs in other maternal infections, such as HIV-1 and malaria. In this study, we asked whether ZIKV infection during pregnancy impairs transplacental transfer of IgG. We enrolled pregnant women with fever or rash in a prospective cohort in Vitoria, Brazil during the recent ZIKV epidemic. ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV)-specific IgG, ZIKV and DENV neutralizing antibodies, and routine vaccine antigenspecific IgG were measured in maternal samples collected around delivery and 20 paired cord blood samples. We concluded that 8 of these mothers were infected with ZIKV during pregnancy and 12 were ZIKV-uninfected. The magnitude of flavivirus-specific IgG, neutralizing antibody, and vaccine-elicited IgG were highly correlated between maternal plasma and infant cord blood in both ZIKV-infected and -uninfected mother-infant pairs. Moreover, there was no difference in the magnitude of plasma flavivirus-specific IgG levels between mothers and infants regardless of ZIKV infection status. Our data suggests that maternal ZIKV infection during pregnancy does not impair the efficiency of placental transfer of flavivirus-specific, functional, and vaccine-elicited IgG. These findings have implications for the neonatal outomes of maternal ZIKV infection and optimal administration of antibody-based ZIKV vaccines and therapeutics

    PHYSICO - CHEMICAL STUDY OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF PARADA SAMANYA SHODHANA

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    Shodhana (purification) is an important concept in Rasashastra, it is said that every drug should be subjected to Shodhana before its internal use and Mercury is no exception. Owing to its origin or other causes, Mercury is likely to be associated with different types of impurities of various degrees. Though many Doshas are attributed to Mercury Naga (Lead), Vanga (Tin) Doshas are considered the major ones. With the help of advanced chemical analytical techniques, quantitative detection of lead and tin contents in Mercury is possible to-day. Chemical analysis for lead and tin contents in Mercury before Shodhana i.e. unprocessed and after Shodhana i.e. processed leads to conformation of Naga, Vanga Doshas in Mercury. At the same time efficacy of the purificatory methods can be assessed by observing the reduction in percentage of lead and tin content in processed Mercury. Keeping this idea in mind, the present study physico-Chemical Study of different methods of Parada Samanya shodhana&nbsp;was under taken. All Samanya shodhana methods were screened to find out the most easy, quickest method and four methods were selected for this study. During the pharmaceutical work, time consumption, yield, and cost were taken into account in each selected purificatory methods. Four purified samples of Mercury along with raw sample of Mercury were sent for chemical analysis to SASTRA University, Tanjavur and samples were analyzed by using Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Depending upon the practical observation and statistical analysis it is concluded that Naga and Vanga- lead and tin are same respectively. All purificatory methods are effective in reducing lead and tin content that contaminate Mercury. The fourth method which consisted of triturating Mercury with Nagavalli swarasa, Ardraka swarasa and Triksara is most efficacious, quick, economic and more yielding method among the four selected Samanya shodhan methods. Apart from the criteria of good yield, and economy the Hingulotta parada and second method in which Mercury is triturated with Sudha churna, Lasuna kalka, and Saindhava lavana are more viable methods

    Efficacy of a couple-based randomized controlled trial to help latino fathers quit smoking during pregnancy and postpartum: The parejas trial

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    10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0841Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention242379-38

    A STUDY ON KANDUGHNA TAILA IN FILARIAL LYMPHANGITIS AND ULCERS

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    The disease Shlipada is very common in Andhra Pradesh Coastal belts. The chronic filarial patients used to suffer from acute periodic episodes. During these acute periodic episodes majority of the filarial patients develop lymphangitis (inflammation of lymphatic vessel), wounds and ulcers in affected legs. Some of the patients develop oozing blisters and pustules. Patients with these acute symptoms suffer from severe pain and tenderness and un-hygiene may lead to secondary bacterial infections. These periodic episodes often end with fibrosis and permanent swelling (Lymphedema). Many Ayurvedic herbal and herbo-mineral drugs were successfully used internally to reduce chronic filarial swelling (lymphedema), but there is an ultimate need to find an external application to reduce the acute symptoms like lymphangitis, wounds and ulcers. Kandughna taila is a Ayurvedic herbal oil prepared from Kandughna Dashaimani (a group of 10 drugs indicated in Itching) of Caraka samhita. This Kandughna taila was selected to study externally on Filarial patients. As a part of PhD study to find the efficacy of drug this oil alone was used in 28 patients in an open clinical trail. Encouraging results were observed during and after 30 days of treatment. Out of 28 cases, 8 (28.8%) got good response, 15 (53.6%) got fair response, 2 (7.1%) got poor response and 3 (10.7%) cases did not show any response. Overall 63.68% relief was found in all acute clinical parameters. Parameter wise 62% of relief in lymphangitis, 56.1% in pain, 62.5% in tenderness, 77.78% relief in wound/ ulcer were found. In statistical analysis based paired t-test relief on acute symptoms like lymphangitis, pain, tenderness, wound were found highly significant (P&lt;0.0001). Statistically overall effect of treatment on acute symptoms was also found highly significant (P&lt;0.0001)

    Gestational weight gain in consecutive pregnancies

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    10.1016/j.ajog.2010.06.038American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology2033279.e1-279.e6AJOG
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