2,865 research outputs found

    Effects of Boron addition on lettuce plants grown in the soil and hydroponically

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    . - Boron (B) is a crucial micronutrient needed for plant growth. This study investigated the effect of B addition (0.5 mg kg-1-low, and 5 mg kg-1-high) on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants grown in the soil and hydroponically. The results showed that B addition causes a differential increase in B concentration in lettuce leaves depending on the cultivation system. In soil-grown plants, a statistically significant increase in lettuce B concentration was shown with increasing B treatments compared to the control. Moreover, the B concentrations measured in lettuce were within the optimal level for healthy lettuce. While hydroponically-grown plants showed a statistically significant increase in lettuce B concentration at high B treatment compared to the control and low B treatment. However, the high B treatment in hydroponics caused a very high B concentration in lettuce (196.4 mg kg-1) leading to toxicity expressed by the decrease in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and chlorophyll content. Therefore, B concentration should be below 5 mg kg-1 for hydroponically-grown lettuce. Soil total and available B concentrations increased with B addition and considered a sufficient level. The other soil physicochemical parameters did not reveal a statistically significant difference with the B treatments, except a modest increase in pH, suggesting that the soil has a great homeostatic capacity. Additionally, the results showed that hydroponically-grown lettuce performs much better in terms of biomass production

    High resolution

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    Neutron capture cross section measurements of isotopes close to s-process branching-points are of fundamental importance for the understanding of this nucleosynthesis mechanism through which about 50% of the elements heavier than iron are produced. We present in this contribution the results corresponding to the high resolution measurement, for first time ever, of the 80Se(n, Îł) cross section, in which 98 resonances never measured before have been reported. As a consequence, ten times more precise values for the MACS have been obtained compared to previous accepted value adopted in the astrophysical KADoNiS data base

    Antihypertensive treatment changes and related clinical outcomes in older hospitalized patients

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    Background: Hypertension management in older patients represents a challenge, particularly when hospitalized.Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the determinants and related outcomes of antihypertensive drug prescription in a cohort of older hospitalized patients.Methods: A total of 5671 patients from REPOSI (a prospective multicentre observational register of older Italian in-patients from internal medicine or geriatric wards) were considered; 4377 (77.2%) were hypertensive. Minimum treatment (MT) for hypertension was defined according to the 2018 ESC guidelines [an angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor (ACE-I) or an angiotensin-receptorblocker (ARB) with a calcium- channel-blocker (CCB) and/or a thiazide diuretic; if > 80 years old, an ACE I or ARB or CCB or thiazide diuretic]. Determinants of MT discontinuation at discharge were assessed. Study outcomes were any cause rehospitalization/all cause death, all cause death, cardiovascular (CV) hospitalization/death, CV death, non CV death, evaluated according to the presence of MT at discharge.Results: Hypertensive patients were older than normotensives, with a more impaired functional status, higher burden of comorbidity and polypharmacy. A total of 2233 patients were on MT at admission, 1766 were on MT at discharge. Discontinuation of MT was associated with the presence of comorbidities (lower odds for diabetes, higher odds for chronic kidney disease and dementia). An adjusted multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that MT for hypertension at discharge was associated with lower risk of all cause death, all cause death/hospitalization, CV death, CV death/hospitalization and non-CV death. Conclusions: Guidelines-suggested MT for hypertension at discharge is associated with a lower risk of adverse clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, changes in anti hypertensive treatment still occur in a significant proportion of older hospitalized patients

    Rapid Decrease in Fluoroquinolones Consumption following Implementation of a Simple Antimicrobial Stewardship Bundled Intervention in a University Hospital during the COVID-19 Pandemic

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    Fluoroquinolones (FQs) represent an class of antibiotics of medical importance, but their use has been restricted due to their ecologic impact and associated side effects. The reduction of FQs use is an important goal of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP). This work describes an ASP focused on overall antibiotics and FQs consumption reduction. From January 2021, an ASP was implemented in a 700-bed teaching hospital. The ASP was based on: (i) antibiotics consumption monitoring system (DDD/100 bed days); (ii) mandatory antibiotic prescription-motivation (using a dedicated informatic format) with the goal of >75% of motivated prescriptions; and (iii) data feedback and training on FQs use indications. We evaluated the impact of the intervention on overall systemic antibiotics and FQs consumption according to the objectives posed by Italian PNCAR (National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance). A decrease of 6.6% in antibiotic use was observed (2019 vs. 2021). Notably, the FQs consumption fell by 48.3% from 7.1 DDD/100 bd in 2019 to 3.7 DDD/100 bd in 2021 (p < 0.001). After six months of mandatory antibiotic prescription-indication, all units achieved the target set. The study suggests that a simple, bundled ASP intervention can be rapidly effective obtaining the objectives of PNCAR on the reduction of overall antibiotics and FQs consumption

    Measurement of the 77Se(n,Îł)^{77}Se ( n , Îł ) cross section up to 200 keV at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    The 77Se(n,γ)^{77}Se ( n , γ ) reaction is of importance for 77Se^{77}Se abundance during the slow neutron capture process in massive stars. We have performed a new measurement of the 77Se^{77}Se radiative neutron capture cross section at the Neutron Time-of-Flight facility at CERN. Resonance capture kernels were derived up to 51 keV and cross sections up to 200 keV. Maxwellian-averaged cross sections were calculated for stellar temperatures between kT=5 keVkT=5 \space keV and kT=100 keVkT=100\space keV, with uncertainties between 4.2% and 5.7%. Our results lead to substantial decreases of 14% and 19% in 77Se^{77}Se abundances produced through the slow neutron capture process in selected stellar models of 15M⊙15M⊙ and 2M⊙2M⊙, respectively, compared to using previous recommendation of the cross section

    Numerical tools for burning plasmas

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    The software stack under development within a European coordinated effort on tools for burning plasma modelling is presented. The project is organised as a Task (TSVV Task 10) under the new E-TASC initiative (Litaudon et al 2022 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 64 034005). This is a continued effort within the EUROfusion inheriting from the earlier European coordination projects as well as research projects based at various European laboratories. The ongoing work of the TSVV Tasks is supported by the Advanced Computing Hubs. Major projects requiring the high performance computing (HPC) resources are global gyrokinetic codes and global hybrid particle-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) codes. Also applications using the integrated modelling tools, such as the Energetic-Particle Workflow, based on the ITER Integrated Modelling & Analysis Suite (IMAS), or the code package for modelling radio-frequency heating and fast-ion generation may require intensive computation and a substantial memory footprint. The continual development of these codes both on the physics side and on the HPC side allows us to tackle frontier problems, such as the interaction of turbulence with MHD-type modes in the presence of fast particles. One of the important mandated outcomes of the E-TASC project is the IMAS-enabling of EUROfusion codes and release of the software stack to the EUROfusion community

    Measurement of the

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    The neutron capture cross section of 241Am is an important quantity for nuclear energy production and fuel cycle scenarios. Several measurements have been performed in recent years with the aim to reduce existing uncertainties in evaluated data. Two previous measurements, performed at the 185 m flight-path station EAR1 of the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN, have permitted to substantially extend the resolved resonance region, but suffered in the near-thermal energy range from the unfavorable signal-to-background ratio resulting from the combination of the high radioactivity of 241Am and the rather low thermal neutron flux. The here presented 241Am(n,Îł) measurement, performed with C6D6 liquid scintillator gamma detectors at the 20 m flight-path station EAR2 of the n_TOF facility, took advantage of the much higher neutron flux. The current status of the analysis of the data, focussed on the low-energy region, will be described here

    Measurement of the <math><mrow><mmultiscripts><mi>Se</mi><mprescripts/><none/><mn>77</mn></mmultiscripts><mo>(</mo><mi>n</mi><mo>,</mo><mi>γ</mi><mo>)</mo></mrow></math> cross section up to 200 keV at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    International audienceThe Se77(n,γ) reaction is of importance for Se77 abundance during the slow neutron capture process in massive stars. We have performed a new measurement of the Se77 radiative neutron capture cross section at the Neutron Time-of-Flight facility at CERN. Resonance capture kernels were derived up to 51 keV and cross sections up to 200 keV. Maxwellian-averaged cross sections were calculated for stellar temperatures between kT=5keV and kT=100keV, with uncertainties between 4.2% and 5.7%. Our results lead to substantial decreases of 14% and 19% in Se77 abundances produced through the slow neutron capture process in selected stellar models of 15M⊙ and 2M⊙, respectively, compared to using previous recommendation of the cross section

    Results of the

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    Accurate neutron capture cross section data for minor actinides (MAs) are required to estimate the production and transmutation rates of MAs in light water reactors, critical fast reactors like Gen-IV systems, and other innovative reactor systems such as accelerator driven systems (ADS). In particular, 244Cm, 246Cm and 248Cm play a role in the transport, storage and transmutation of the nuclear waste of the current nuclear reactors, due to the contribution of these isotopes to the radiotoxicity, neutron emission, and decay heat in the spent nuclear fuel. Also, capture reactions in these Cm isotopes open the path for the formation of heavier elements. In this work, the results of the capture cross section measurement on 244Cm, 246Cm and 248Cm performed at the CERN n_TOF facility are presented. It is important to notice that the Cm samples used in the experiment at n_TOF have been used previously in an experiment at J-PARC, this experiment and the previous one done in the 70s with a nuclear explosion were the only previous capture experiments for these isotopes. At n_TOF, the capture cross section measurements of 244Cm, 246Cm and 248Cm were performed at the 20 m vertical flight path (EAR2) with three C6D6 total energy detectors. In addition, the cross section of 244Cm was measured at the 185 m flight path (EAR1) with a Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC). The combination of measurements in EAR1 and EAR2 has contributed to controlling and reducing the systematic uncertainties in the results. The compatibility of the different measurements performed and the techniques to obtain the results are presented in this paper as well as the procedure to obtain the resonance parameters

    From Biomass to Bio-Based Polymers: Exploitation of Vanillic Acid for the Design of New Copolymers with Tunable Properties

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    Vanillic acid represents a potentially interesting bio-based building block for the production of new aliphatic-aromatic polymers, characterized by thermal properties similar to those of the analogous terephthalic polyesters. However, poly(ethylene vanillate) proved to be a very brittle material, probably due to a very high degree of crystallinity, and, then, not suitable for melt processing. Therefore, the synthesis of copolymers, based on vanillic acid and pentadecalactone is considered as a strategy to obtain new polymeric materials with a low degree of crystallinity, tunable properties, and better performances. The synthesis of these fully bio-based random copolymers is successful. The thermal properties have been studied in order to correlate chemical structure and final performances. The polymers proved to be processable and films are obtained, suggesting possible applications of the copolymers in a new sustainable flexible packaging
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