1,333 research outputs found

    Listening session with the US Food and Drug Administration, Lewy Body Dementia Association, and an expert panel

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    UNLABELLED: The regulatory path for drug approval is increasingly well defined. Drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) need to show statistically significant benefit over placebo with respect to cognitive and functional measures, with the Clinical Dementia Rating scale and Alzheimer\u27s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale being among the most often used instruments in AD clinical trials. In contrast, there are no validated instruments for use in clinical trials of drugs for the treatment of dementia with Lewy bodies. This poses challenges for drug development because the regulatory pathway to drug approval requires demonstrable efficacy measures. In December 2021, the Lewy Body Dementia Association advisory group met with representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration to discuss the lack of approved drugs and treatments, discernment of efficacy measures, and identification of biomarkers. HIGHLIGHTS: The Lewy Body with Dementia Association convened a listening session with the US Food and Drug Administration on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and clinical trial design.Gaps include DLB-specific measures, alpha synuclein biomarkers, and coexisting pathologies.DLB clinical trial design should focus on clinical value and disease specificity

    SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in pregnant women in Kilifi, Kenya from March 2020 to March 2022

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    BackgroundSeroprevalence studies are an alternative approach to estimating the extent of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and the evolution of the pandemic in different geographical settings. We aimed to determine the SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence from March 2020 to March 2022 in a rural and urban setting in Kilifi County, Kenya.MethodsWe obtained representative random samples of stored serum from a pregnancy cohort study for the period March 2020 to March 2022 and tested for antibodies against the spike protein using a qualitative SARS-CoV-2 ELISA kit (Wantai, total antibodies). All positive samples were retested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid antibodies (Euroimmun, ELISA kits, NCP, qualitative, IgG) and anti-spike protein antibodies (Euroimmun, ELISA kits, QuantiVac; quantitative, IgG).ResultsA total of 2,495 (of 4,703 available) samples were tested. There was an overall trend of increasing seropositivity from a low of 0% [95% CI 0–0.06] in March 2020 to a high of 89.4% [95% CI 83.36–93.82] in Feb 2022. Of the Wantai test-positive samples, 59.7% [95% CI 57.06–62.34] tested positive by the Euroimmun anti-SARS-CoV-2 NCP test and 37.4% [95% CI 34.83–40.04] tested positive by the Euroimmun anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac test. No differences were observed between the urban and rural hospital but villages adjacent to the major highway traversing the study area had a higher seroprevalence.ConclusionAnti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rose rapidly, with most of the population exposed to SARS-CoV-2 within 23 months of the first cases. The high cumulative seroprevalence suggests greater population exposure to SARS-CoV-2 than that reported from surveillance data

    Impact of the Dopamine System on Long‐Term Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson Disease: An Exploratory Study

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    BackgroundLittle is known about the impact of the dopamine system on development of cognitive impairment (CI) in Parkinson disease (PD).ObjectivesWe used data from a multi-site, international, prospective cohort study to explore the impact of dopamine system-related biomarkers on CI in PD.MethodsPD participants were assessed annually from disease onset out to 7 years, and CI determined by applying cut-offs to four measures: (1) Montreal Cognitive Assessment; (2) detailed neuropsychological test battery; (3) Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) cognition score; and (4) site investigator diagnosis of CI (mild cognitive impairment or dementia). The dopamine system was assessed by serial Iodine-123 Ioflupane dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging, genotyping, and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) recorded at each assessment. Multivariate longitudinal analyses, with adjustment for multiple comparisons, determined the association between dopamine system-related biomarkers and CI, including persistent impairment.ResultsDemographic and clinical variables associated with CI were higher age, male sex, lower education, non-White race, higher depression and anxiety scores and higher MDS-UPDRS motor score. For the dopamine system, lower baseline mean striatum dopamine transporter values (P range 0.003-0.005) and higher LEDD over time (P range <0.001-0.01) were significantly associated with increased risk for CI.ConclusionsOur results provide preliminary evidence that alterations in the dopamine system predict development of clinically-relevant, cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. If replicated and determined to be causative, they demonstrate that the dopamine system is instrumental to cognitive health status throughout the disease course.Trial registrationParkinson's Progression Markers Initiative is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01141023)

    Dementia with Lewy Bodies Drug Therapies in Clinical Trials: Systematic Review up to 2022

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    Abstract Introduction Reviews of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are essential for informing ongoing research efforts of symptomatic therapies and potentially disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). Methods We performed a systematic review of all clinical trials conducted until September 27, 2022, by examining 3 international registries: ClinicalTrials.gov, the European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials Database, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, to identify drugs in trials in DLB. Results We found 25 agents in 40 trials assessing symptomatic treatments and DMTs for DLB: 7 phase 3, 31 phase 2, and 2 phase 1 trials. We found an active pipeline for drug development in DLB, with most ongoing clinical trials in phase 2. We identified a recent trend towards including participants at the prodromal stages, although more than half of active clinical trials will enroll mild to moderate dementia patients. Additionally, repurposed agents are frequently tested, representing 65% of clinical trials. Conclusion Current challenges in DLB clinical trials include the need for disease-specific outcome measures and biomarkers, and improving representation of global and diverse populations

    Prevention of gestational diabetes in pregnant women with obesity:protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

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    BACKGROUND: Obesity in pregnancy increases the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associated adverse outcomes. Despite metabolic differences, all pregnant women with obesity are considered to have the same risk of developing GDM. Improved risk stratification is required to enable targeted intervention in women with obesity who would benefit the most. The aim of this study is to identify pregnant women with obesity at higher risk of developing GDM and, in a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT), test feasibility and assess the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention and/or metformin to improve glycaemic control. METHODS: Women aged 18 years or older with a singleton pregnancy and body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30kg/m(2) will be recruited from one maternity unit in London, UK. The risk of GDM will be assessed using a multivariable GDM prediction model combining maternal age, mid-arm circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides and HbA1c. Women identified at a higher risk of developing GDM will be randomly allocated to one of two intervention groups (lifestyle advice with or without metformin) or standard antenatal care. The primary feasibility outcomes are study recruitment, retention rate and intervention adherence and to collect information needed for the sample size calculation for the definitive trial. A process evaluation will assess the acceptability of study processes and procedures to women. Secondary patient-centred outcomes include a reduction in mean glucose/24h of 0.5mmol/l as assessed by continuous glucose monitoring and changes in a targeted maternal metabolome, dietary intake and physical activity. A sample of 60 high-risk women is required. DISCUSSION: Early risk stratification of GDM in pregnant women with obesity and targeted intervention using lifestyle advice with or without metformin could improve glucose tolerance compared to standard antenatal care. The results from this feasibility study will inform a larger adequately powered RCT should the intervention show trends for potential effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been approved by the NHS Research Ethics Committee (UK IRAS integrated research application system; reference 18/LO/1500). EudraCT number 2018-000003-16

    External validation of prognostic models to predict stillbirth using International Prediction of Pregnancy Complications (IPPIC) Network database: individual participant data meta-analysis

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    Objective: Stillbirth is a potentially preventable complication of pregnancy. Identifying women at high risk of stillbirth can guide decisions on the need for closer surveillance and timing of delivery in order to prevent fetal death. Prognostic models have been developed to predict the risk of stillbirth, but none has yet been validated externally. In this study, we externally validated published prediction models for stillbirth using individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to assess their predictive performance. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, DH-DATA and AMED databases were searched from inception to December 2020 to identify studies reporting stillbirth prediction models. Studies that developed or updated prediction models for stillbirth for use at any time during pregnancy were included. IPD from cohorts within the International Prediction of Pregnancy Complications (IPPIC) Network were used to validate externally the identified prediction models whose individual variables were available in the IPD. The risk of bias of the models and cohorts was assessed using the Prediction study Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool (PROBAST). The discriminative performance of the models was evaluated using the C-statistic, and calibration was assessed using calibration plots, calibration slope and calibration-in-the-large. Performance measures were estimated separately in each cohort, as well as summarized across cohorts using random-effects meta-analysis. Clinical utility was assessed using net benefit. Results: Seventeen studies reporting the development of 40 prognostic models for stillbirth were identified. None of the models had been previously validated externally, and the full model equation was reported for only one-fifth (20%, 8/40) of the models. External validation was possible for three of these models, using IPD from 19 cohorts (491 201 pregnant women) within the IPPIC Network database. Based on evaluation of the model development studies, all three models had an overall high risk of bias, according to PROBAST. In the IPD meta-analysis, the models had summary C-statistics ranging from 0.53 to 0.65 and summary calibration slopes ranging from 0.40 to 0.88, with risk predictions that were generally too extreme compared with the observed risks. The models had little to no clinical utility, as assessed by net benefit. However, there remained uncertainty in the performance of some models due to small available sample sizes. Conclusions: The three validated stillbirth prediction models showed generally poor and uncertain predictive performance in new data, with limited evidence to support their clinical application. The findings suggest methodological shortcomings in their development, including overfitting. Further research is needed to further validate these and other models, identify stronger prognostic factors and develop more robust prediction models. © 2021 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology