252 research outputs found

    Global Cutaneous Mucormycosis: A Systematic Review

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    Cutaneous mucormycosis is the third most common clinical type of mucormycosis. The signs and symptoms vary widely, and it is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible in order to achieve a better outcome. We present a systematic review of its epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment, analyzing cases published from 1958 until 2021. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and included 693 cases from 485 articles from 46 countries. Most publications were from North America (256 cases, 36.9%) and Asia (216 cases, 31.2%). The most common risk factors were diabetes mellitus (20%) and hematological malignancies (15.7%). However, a large proportion of published cases (275, 39.6%) had no identified underlying disease. The most common mode of transmission was trauma (54%), and 108 (15.6%) cases were healthcare-associated. In this review, 291 (42.5%) patients had localized infection, and 90 (13%) had disseminated mucormycosis. In Europe, N. America and S. America, the most common genus was Rhizopus spp., while in Asia it was Apophysomyces spp. (34.7%). Treatment was performed with antifungals, mainly amphotericin B, and/or surgery. Mortality was significantly lower when both antifungals and surgery were applied (29.6%). © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

    Otolaryngology in the COVID-19 pandemic era: the impact on our clinical practice

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    Purpose: To give an overview of the current knowledge about COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on otolaryngology clinical practice. Methods: Recent findings about SARS-CoV-2 virus and the COVID-19 infection it causes are reviewed. In addition to international databases and in the absence of hard scientific data, literature search included reports published online from scientific societies and other institutions. Results: The role of anosmia as a COVID-19-related symptom is presented. Further, considerations about steroid administration in ENT-related conditions are also discussed. Due to the close work with mucosa surfaces of the upper aerodigestive tract, otolaryngologists and surrounding staff are considered high risk for coronavirus transmission. Hence, staff protection measures for ENT examinations, surgeries and other procedures during COVID-19 pandemic are recommended. Conclusion: Knowledge and evidence about the impact of COVID-19 infection on otolaryngology clinical practice are accumulating rapidly. Additionally to patient’s management, safety of health care professionals should be a main goal right now by following strict safety guidelines. © 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature

    MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE AND INTEGRONS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN IN GREECE

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    Enteric faecal flora of food-producing animals such as poultry i

    Corrigendum: Azole-resistance in aspergillus terreusand related species: An emerging problem or a rare phenomenon? (Frontiers in Microbiology (2018) 9 (516) DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00516)

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    Raquel Sabino was not included as an author in the published article. The authors apologize for this error and state that this does not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way. The original article has been updated. © 2019 Zoran, Sartori, Sappl, Aigner, Sánchez-Reus, Rezusta, Chowdhary, Taj-Aldeen, Arendrup, Oliveri, Kontoyiannis, Alastruey-Izquierdo, Lagrou, Lo Cascio, Meis, Buzina, Farina, Drogari-Apiranthitou, Grancini, Tortorano, Willinger, Hamprecht, Johnson, Klingspor, Arsic-Arsenijevic, Cornely, Meletiadis, Prammer, Tullio, Vehreschild, Trovato, Lewis, Segal, Rath, Hamal, Rodriguez-Iglesias, Roilides, Arikan-Akdagli, Chakrabarti, Colombo, Fernández, Martin-Gomez, Badali, Petrikkos, Klimko, Heimann, Uzun, Roudbary, de la Fuente, Houbraken, Risslegger, Sabino, Lass-Flörl and Lackner

    Establishing nationally representative central line-associated bloodstream infection surveillance data for paediatric patients in Greece

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    Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and with excess costs. Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are the most common HCAIs in neonates and children. Aim: To establish national benchmark data for rates of CLABSI in neonatal and paediatric intensive care units (NICUs and PICUs) and paediatric oncology units (ONCs). Methods: Active surveillance for CLABSI was conducted from June 2016 to February 2017. A collaborative of 14 NICUs, four PICUs, and six ONCs participated in the programme. Surveillance definitions of central line (CL), central line utilization (CLU) ratio, CLABSI event, and CLABSI rate were based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2014 National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. Medical records were assessed daily for calculating CL-days, patient-days, and susceptibility of isolated organisms. Findings: A total of 111 CLABSI episodes were recorded. The overall mean CLABSI rate was 4.41 infections per 1000 CL-days, and the CLU ratio was 0.31. CLABSI rates were 6.02 in NICUs, 6.09 in PICUs, and 2.78 per 1000 CL-days in ONCs. A total of 123 pathogens were isolated. The most common pathogens were Enterobacteriaceae (36%), followed by Gram-positive cocci (29%), non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria (16%), and fungi (16%). Overall, 37% of Gram-negative pathogens were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and 37% to carbapenems. Conclusion: Nationally representative CLABSI rates were determined for paediatric patients. These data could be used to benchmark and serve as baseline data for the design and evaluation of infection control and antimicrobial stewardship interventions. © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Societ

    Challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis

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    The diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis are challenging. The incidence of the disease seems to be increasing. Hematological malignancies are the most common underlying disease in countries with high income and uncontrolled diabetes in developing countries. Clinical approach to diagnosis lacks sensitivity and specificity. Radiologically, multiple (≥10) nodules and pleural effusion are reportedly associated with pulmonary mucormycosis. Another finding on computerized tomography (CT) scan, which seems to indicate the presence of mucormycosis, is the reverse halo sign. Microscopy (direct and on histopathology) and culture are the cornerstones of diagnosis. Molecular assays can be used either for detection or identification of mucormycetes, and they can be recommended as valuable add-on tools that complement conventional diagnostic procedures. Successful management of mucormycosis is based on a multimodal approach, including reversal or discontinuation of underlying predisposing factors, early administration of active antifungal agents at optimal doses, complete removal of all infected tissues, and use of various adjunctive therapies. Our armamentarium of antifungals is slightly enriched by the addition of two newer azoles (posaconazole and isavuconazole) to liposomal amphotericin B, which remains the drug of choice for the initial antifungal treatment, according to the recently published guidelines by ECIL-6, as well as those published by ECMM/ESCMID. Despite the efforts for better understanding of the pathogenesis, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of mucormycosis, the mortality rate of the disease remains high. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

    Azole-resistance in Aspergillus terreus and related species: An emerging problem or a rare Phenomenon?

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    Objectives: Invasive mold infections associated with Aspergillus species are a significant cause of mortality in immunocompromised patients. The most frequently occurring aetiological pathogens are members of the Aspergillus section Fumigati followed by members of the section Terrei. The frequency of Aspergillus terreus and related (cryptic) species in clinical specimens, as well as the percentage of azole-resistant strains remains to be studied. Methods: A global set (n = 498) of A. terreus and phenotypically related isolates was molecularly identified (beta-tubulin), tested for antifungal susceptibility against posaconazole, voriconazole, and itraconazole, and resistant phenotypes were correlated with point mutations in the cyp51A gene. Results: The majority of isolates was identified as A. terreus (86.8), followed by A. citrinoterreus (8.4), A. hortai (2.6), A. alabamensis (1.6), A. neoafricanus (0.2), and A. floccosus (0.2). One isolate failed to match a known Aspergillus sp., but was found most closely related to A. alabamensis. According to EUCAST clinical breakpoints azole resistance was detected in 5.4 of all tested isolates, 6.2 of A. terreus sensu stricto (s.s.) were posaconazole-resistant. Posaconazole resistance differed geographically and ranged from 0 in the Czech Republic, Greece, and Turkey to 13.7 in Germany. In contrast, azole resistance among cryptic species was rare 2 out of 66 isolates and was observed only in one A. citrinoterreus and one A. alabamensis isolate. The most affected amino acid position of the Cyp51A gene correlating with the posaconazole resistant phenotype was M217, which was found in the variation M217T and M217V. Conclusions: Aspergillus terreus was most prevalent, followed by A. citrinoterreus. Posaconazole was the most potent drug against A. terreus, but 5.4 of A. terreus sensu stricto showed resistance against this azole. In Austria, Germany, and the United Kingdom posaconazole-resistance in all A. terreus isolates was higher than 10, resistance against voriconazole was rare and absent for itraconazole. © 2018 Zoran, Sartori, Sappl, Aigner, Sánchez-Reus, Rezusta, Chowdhary, Taj-Aldeen, Arendrup, Oliveri, Kontoyiannis, Alastruey-Izquierdo, Lagrou, Cascio, Meis, Buzina, Farina, Drogari-Apiranthitou, Grancini, Tortorano, Willinger, Hamprecht, Johnson, Klingspor, Arsic-Arsenijevic, Cornely, Meletiadis, Prammer, Tullio, Vehreschild, Trovato, Lewis, Segal, Rath, Hamal, Rodriguez-Iglesias, Roilides, Arikan-Akdagli, Chakrabarti, Colombo, Fernández, Martin-Gomez, Badali, Petrikkos, Klimko, Heimann, Uzun, Roudbary, de la Fuente, Houbraken, Risslegger, Lass-Flörl and Lackner

    Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Mucormycoses

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    Purpose: The purposes of this review are to describe the pathogenesis of mucormycosis and to address recent research advances in understanding the mechanisms of fungal invasion and dissemination. Methods: Studies and reviews published in the PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov databases until December 2017 that explored or reported recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of mucormycosis were reviewed. Findings: To cause disease, fungal spores need to evade the innate immune system and germinate, leading to angioinvasion and tissue destruction. Recent studies have found that Mucorales are able to downregulate several host defense mechanisms and have identified the specific receptors through which Mucorales attach to the endothelium, facilitating their endocytosis and subsequent angioinvasion. In addition, certain conditions found to act through various mechanisms and pathways in experimental and animal studies, such as hyperglycemia, elevated iron concentrations, and acidosis (particularly diabetic ketoacidosis), increase the virulence of the fungi and enhance their attachment to the endothelium, rendering patients with uncontrolled diabetes and patients with iron overload susceptible to mucormycosis. The role and various antifungal functions of platelets and natural killer cells are highlighted, and the potential contribution of alternative therapies, such as manipulating the innate immune host defenses with granulocyte transfusions or administration of growth factors and using the antifungal effects of calcineurin inhibitors, are presented. Finally, directions and possible implications for future research are provided. Implications: This article provides a comprehensive overview of research advances in the pathogenesis of infections caused by Mucorales and helps future studies develop effective treatment strategies and improve patient outcomes. © 2018 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc

    Management of invasive fungal infections in adult patients with hematological malignancies in Greece during the financial crisis: Challenges and recommendations

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    There are concerns that the financial crisis in Greece negatively affected the management of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) among patients with hematological malignancies (HM). A working group (WG) was formed to explore the situation and make recommendations. A questionnaire was created and distributed to physicians caring for patients with HM, to gather information in a standardized manner on prescribing physicians, patient characteristics, availability of diagnostics, antifungal treatment practices and the conditions and particularities of Greek hospitals. A total of 141 physicians from 36 hematology units and laboratories located in 26 Greek hospitals participated. Regarding hospitalization conditions, only 56% reported that their patients were treated in isolated single or double bed rooms, 22% reported availability of HEPA filters, 47% reported construction works in progress, and an alarming 18% reported the presence of birds on open windows. Regarding diagnosis, only 31% reported availability of biomarkers for diagnosis of IFIs, 76% reported that CT scans were performed in a timely fashion, 42% reported prompt availability of broncho-alveolar lavage, and only 6% availability of therapeutic drug monitoring. Of concern, 26% of the responders reported non-availability of some antifungals. In conclusion, significant challenges exist for the optimal management of IFIs in patients with HM in Greece. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland
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