1,245 research outputs found

    Design and performance of the ENUBET monitored neutrino beam

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    The ENUBET project is aimed at designing and experimentally demonstrating the concept of monitored neutrino beams. These novel beams are enhanced by an instrumented decay tunnel, whose detectors reconstruct large-angle charged leptons produced in the tunnel and give a direct estimate of the neutrino flux at the source. These facilities are thus the ideal tool for high-precision neutrino cross-section measurements at the GeV scale because they offer superior control of beam systematics with respect to existing facilities. In this paper, we present the first end-to-end design of a monitored neutrino beam capable of monitoring lepton production at the single particle level. This goal is achieved by a new focusing system without magnetic horns, a 20 m normal-conducting transfer line for charge and momentum selection, and a 40 m tunnel instrumented with cost-effective particle detectors. Employing such a design, we show that percent precision in cross-section measurements can be achieved at the CERN SPS complex with existing neutrino detectors

    Highly-parallelized simulation of a pixelated LArTPC on a GPU

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    The rapid development of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is allowing the implementation of highly-parallelized Monte Carlo simulation chains for particle physics experiments. This technique is particularly suitable for the simulation of a pixelated charge readout for time projection chambers, given the large number of channels that this technology employs. Here we present the first implementation of a full microphysical simulator of a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) equipped with light readout and pixelated charge readout, developed for the DUNE Near Detector. The software is implemented with an end-to-end set of GPU-optimized algorithms. The algorithms have been written in Python and translated into CUDA kernels using Numba, a just-in-time compiler for a subset of Python and NumPy instructions. The GPU implementation achieves a speed up of four orders of magnitude compared with the equivalent CPU version. The simulation of the current induced on 10^3 pixels takes around 1 ms on the GPU, compared with approximately 10 s on the CPU. The results of the simulation are compared against data from a pixel-readout LArTPC prototype

    A Novel MIMO Control for Interleaved Buck Converters in EV DC Fast Charging Applications

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    This brief proposes a new multiple input multiple output (MIMO) control for off-board electric vehicle (EV) dc fast chargers. The proposed feedback matrix design avoids multiple tuning of controllers in multiple and interconnected loops while improving the performance of interleaved dc buck converters over classical PI/PID controls. The innovative features of the presented strategy are the reference current monotonic tracking from any initial state of charge with an arbitrarily fast settling time and the fast compensation of both load variations and imbalances among the legs. Numerical results validate the performance improvements of the proposed discrete-time MIMO algorithm for interleaved buck converters over classical PI/PID controls. Full-scale hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and scaled-down prototype experimental results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposal

    Highly-parallelized simulation of a pixelated LArTPC on a GPU

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    The rapid development of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is allowing the implementation of highly-parallelized Monte Carlo simulation chains for particle physics experiments. This technique is particularly suitable for the simulation of a pixelated charge readout for time projection chambers, given the large number of channels that this technology employs. Here we present the first implementation of a full microphysical simulator of a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) equipped with light readout and pixelated charge readout, developed for the DUNE Near Detector. The software is implemented with an end-to-end set of GPU-optimized algorithms. The algorithms have been written in Python and translated into CUDA kernels using Numba, a just-in-time compiler for a subset of Python and NumPy instructions. The GPU implementation achieves a speed up of four orders of magnitude compared with the equivalent CPU version. The simulation of the current induced on 103 pixels takes around 1 ms on the GPU, compared with approximately 10 s on the CPU. The results of the simulation are compared against data from a pixel-readout LArTPC prototype

    Identification and reconstruction of low-energy electrons in the ProtoDUNE-SP detector

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    Measurements of electrons from Îœe\nu_e interactions are crucial for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) neutrino oscillation program, as well as searches for physics beyond the standard model, supernova neutrino detection, and solar neutrino measurements. This article describes the selection and reconstruction of low-energy (Michel) electrons in the ProtoDUNE-SP detector. ProtoDUNE-SP is one of the prototypes for the DUNE far detector, built and operated at CERN as a charged particle test beam experiment. A sample of low-energy electrons produced by the decay of cosmic muons is selected with a purity of 95%. This sample is used to calibrate the low-energy electron energy scale with two techniques. An electron energy calibration based on a cosmic ray muon sample uses calibration constants derived from measured and simulated cosmic ray muon events. Another calibration technique makes use of the theoretically well-understood Michel electron energy spectrum to convert reconstructed charge to electron energy. In addition, the effects of detector response to low-energy electron energy scale and its resolution including readout electronics threshold effects are quantified. Finally, the relation between the theoretical and reconstructed low-energy electron energy spectrum is derived and the energy resolution is characterized. The low-energy electron selection presented here accounts for about 75% of the total electron deposited energy. After the addition of lost energy using a Monte Carlo simulation, the energy resolution improves from about 40% to 25% at 50~MeV. These results are used to validate the expected capabilities of the DUNE far detector to reconstruct low-energy electrons.Comment: 19 pages, 10 figure

    Insight into Elderly ALS Patients in the Emilia Romagna Region: Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Late-Onset ALS in a Prospective, Population-Based Study

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    Few studies have focused on elderly (>80 years) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, who represent a fragile subgroup generally not included in clinical trials and often neglected because they are more difficult to diagnose and manage. We analyzed the clinical and genetic features of very late-onset ALS patients through a prospective, population-based study in the Emilia Romagna Region of Italy. From 2009 to 2019, 222 (13.76%) out of 1613 patients in incident cases were over 80 years old at diagnosis, with a female predominance (F:M = 1.18). Elderly ALS patients represented 12.02% of patients before 2015 and 15.91% from 2015 onwards (p = 0.024). This group presented with bulbar onset in 38.29% of cases and had worse clinical conditions at diagnosis compared to younger patients, with a lower average BMI (23.12 vs. 24.57 Kg/m2), a higher progression rate (1.43 vs. 0.95 points/month), and a shorter length of survival (a median of 20.77 vs. 36 months). For this subgroup, genetic analyses have seldom been carried out (25% vs. 39.11%) and are generally negative. Finally, elderly patients underwent less frequent nutritional- and respiratory-supporting procedures, and multidisciplinary teams were less involved at follow-up, except for specialist palliative care. The genotypic and phenotypic features of elderly ALS patients could help identify the different environmental and genetic risk factors that determine the age at which disease onset occurs. Since multidisciplinary management can improve a patient’s prognosis, it should be more extensively applied to this fragile group of patients