14,638 research outputs found

    sj-docx-1-pih-10.1177_09544119231219531 – Supplemental material for Simulating whole-body vibration for neonatal patients on a tire-coupled road simulator

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    Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-pih-10.1177_09544119231219531 for Simulating whole-body vibration for neonatal patients on a tire-coupled road simulator by Patrick Kehoe, Keely Gibb, Jason Hurley, Robert G Langlois, James R Green, Adrian DC Chan, Elton Toma, Cheryl Aubertin, Kim Greenwood, Andrew Ibey and Stephanie Redpath in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine</p

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus uses chimeric fibre proteins to recognize and invade a broad range of bacterial hosts

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    Predatory bacteria, like the model endoperiplasmic bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, show several adaptations relevant to their requirements for locating, entering and killing other bacteria. The mechanisms underlying prey recognition and handling remain obscure. Here we use complementary genetic, microscopic and structural methods to address this deficit. During invasion, the B. bacteriovorus protein CpoB concentrates into a vesicular compartment that is deposited into the prey periplasm. Proteomic and structural analyses of vesicle contents reveal several fibre-like proteins, which we name the mosaic adhesive trimer (MAT) superfamily, and show localization on the predator surface before prey encounter. These dynamic proteins indicate a variety of binding capabilities, and we confirm that one MAT member shows specificity for surface glycans from a particular prey. Our study shows that the B. bacteriovorus MAT protein repertoire enables a broad means for the recognition and handling of diverse prey epitopes encountered during bacterial predation and invasion.</p

    Accelarated immune ageing is associated with COVID-19 disease severity

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    Background The striking increase in COVID-19 severity in older adults provides a clear example of immunesenescence, the age-related remodelling of the immune system. To better characterise the association between convalescent immunesenescence and acute disease severity, we determined the immune phenotype of COVID-19 survivors and non-infected controls. Results We performed detailed immune phenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from 103 COVID-19 survivors 3–5 months post recovery who were classified as having had severe (n = 56; age 53.12 ± 11.30 years), moderate (n = 32; age 52.28 ± 11.43 years) or mild (n = 15; age 49.67 ± 7.30 years) disease and compared with age and sex-matched healthy adults (n = 59; age 50.49 ± 10.68 years). We assessed a broad range of immune cell phenotypes to generate a composite score, IMM-AGE, to determine the degree of immune senescence. We found increased immunesenescence features in severe COVID-19 survivors compared to controls including: a reduced frequency and number of naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells (p < 0.0001); increased frequency of EMRA CD4 (p < 0.003) and CD8 T cells (p < 0.001); a higher frequency (p < 0.0001) and absolute numbers (p < 0.001) of CD28−ve CD57+ve senescent CD4 and CD8 T cells; higher frequency (p < 0.003) and absolute numbers (p < 0.02) of PD-1 expressing exhausted CD8 T cells; a two-fold increase in Th17 polarisation (p < 0.0001); higher frequency of memory B cells (p < 0.001) and increased frequency (p < 0.0001) and numbers (p < 0.001) of CD57+ve senescent NK cells. As a result, the IMM-AGE score was significantly higher in severe COVID-19 survivors than in controls (p < 0.001). Few differences were seen for those with moderate disease and none for mild disease. Regression analysis revealed the only pre-existing variable influencing the IMM-AGE score was South Asian ethnicity ( = 0.174, p = 0.043), with a major influence being disease severity ( = 0.188, p = 0.01). Conclusions Our analyses reveal a state of enhanced immune ageing in survivors of severe COVID-19 and suggest this could be related to SARS-Cov-2 infection. Our data support the rationale for trials of anti-immune ageing interventions for improving clinical outcomes in these patients with severe disease

    The Winchcombe meteorite—A regolith breccia from a rubble pile CM chondrite asteroid

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    The Winchcombe meteorite is a CM chondrite breccia composed of eight distinct lithological units plus a cataclastic matrix. The degree of aqueous alteration varies between intensely altered CM2.0 and moderately altered CM2.6. Although no lithology dominates, three heavily altered rock types (CM2.1–2.3) represent >70 area%. Tochilinite–cronstedtite intergrowths (TCIs) are common in several lithologies. Their compositions can vary significantly, even within a single lithology, which can prevent a clear assessment of alteration extent if only TCI composition is considered. We suggest that this is due to early alteration under localized geochemical microenvironments creating a diversity of compositions and because later reprocessing was incomplete, leaving a record of the parent body's fluid history. In Winchcombe, the fragments of primary accretionary rock are held within a cataclastic matrix (~15 area%). This material is impact-derived fallback debris. Its grain size and texture suggest that the disruption of the original parent asteroid responded by intergranular fracture at grain sizes <100 μm, while larger phases, such as whole chondrules, splintered apart. Re-accretion formed a poorly lithified body. During atmospheric entry, the Winchcombe meteoroid broke apart with new fractures preferentially cutting through the weaker cataclastic matrix and separating the breccia into its component clasts. The strength of the cataclastic matrix imparts a control on the survival of CM chondrite meteoroids. Winchcombe's unweathered state and diversity of lithologies make it an ideal sample for exploring the geological history of the CM chondrite group. </p

    Under the Cover Infant Pose Estimation using Multimodal Data

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    Infant pose monitoring during sleep has multiple applications in both healthcare and home sett