2,844 research outputs found

    FAST FRONT-END ELECTRONICS FOR EXPERIMENTS USING SILICON CALORIMETERS AT SSC /LHC COLLIDERS

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    Abstract A fast VLSI preamplifier using HF2CMOS technology was designed and built. The preamplifier meets the requirements for silicon calorimetry application in experiments at hadron colliders SSC/LHC. The overall power consumption is less than 45 mW for a maximum output voltage swing of 5 V (≈ 7 ns rise time). The slew rate is about 700 V/ÎŒs for an input capacitance of 150 pF. The measured value of ENC (equivalent noise charge), for an RC-CR shaping time of 20 ns and an input capacitance of 150 pF, is 17 ke RMS

    Monolithic read-out electronics for the silicon calorimeters at SSC/LHC colliders

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    Abstract A very fast monolithic charge sensitive preamplifier using HF2CMOS technology featuring less than 45mW power dissipation for a 5V maximum output voltage swing, with a slew rate about 700V/ÎŒsec for 150pF input capacitance (≈ 7nsec rise time), has been realized. A front-end set up for the read out of more detectors and the shaping of the signal with a 20nsec RC-CR filter employing only monolithic preamplifiers is described and tested. The measured value of ENC (Electronic Noise Charge) for the arrangement with 150pF input capacitance is 17keRMS. The preamplifier meets the requirements for silicon calorimetry application for experiments at the hadron colliders SSC/LHC

    Escherichia coli contamination and health aspects of soil and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) subsurface drip irrigated with on-site treated domestic wastewater.

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    Faecal contamination of soil and tomatoes irrigated by sprinkler as well as surface and subsurface drip irrigation with treated domestic wastewater were compared in 2007 and 2008 at experimental sites in Crete and Italy. Wastewater was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology, gravel filtration or UV-treatment before used for irrigation. Irrigation water, soil and tomato samples were collected during two cropping seasons and enumerated for the faecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli and helminth eggs. The study found elevated levels of E. coli in irrigation water (mean: Italy 1753 cell forming unit (cfu) per 100 ml and Crete 488 cfu per 100 ml) and low concentrations of E. coli in soil (mean: Italy 95 cfu g(-1) and Crete 33 cfu g(-1)). Only two out of 84 tomato samples in Crete contained E. coli (mean: 2700 cfu g(-1)) while tomatoes from Italy were free of E. coli. No helminth eggs were found in the irrigation water or on the tomatoes from Crete. Two tomato samples out of 36 from Italy were contaminated by helminth eggs (mean: 0.18 eggs g(-1)) and had been irrigated with treated wastewater and tap water, respectively. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis DNA fingerprints of E. coli collected during 2008 showed no identical pattern between water and soil isolates which indicates contribution from other environmental sources with E. coli, e.g. wildlife. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model with Monte Carlo simulations adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) found the use of tap water and treated wastewater to be associated with risks that exceed permissible limits as proposed by the WHO (1.0 × 10(-3) disease risk per person per year) for the accidental ingestion of irrigated soil by farmers (Crete: 0.67 pppy and Italy: 1.0 pppy). The QMRA found that the consumption of tomatoes in Italy was deemed to be safe while permissible limits were exceeded in Crete (1.0 pppy). Overall the quality of tomatoes was safe for human consumption since the disease risk found on Crete was based on only two contaminated tomato samples. It is a fundamental limitation of the WHO QMRA model that it is not based on actual pathogen numbers, but rather on numbers of E. coli converted to estimated pathogen numbers, since it is widely accepted that there is poor correlation between E. coli and viral and parasite pathogens. Our findings also stress the importance of the external environment, typically wildlife, as sources of faecal contamination

    SiPM and front-end electronics development for Cherenkov light detection

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    The Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) is involved in the development of a demonstrator for a SiPM-based camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) experiment, with a pixel size of 6×\times6 mm2^2. The camera houses about two thousands electronics channels and is both light and compact. In this framework, a R&D program for the development of SiPMs suitable for Cherenkov light detection (so called NUV SiPMs) is ongoing. Different photosensors have been produced at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), with different micro-cell dimensions and fill factors, in different geometrical arrangements. At the same time, INFN is developing front-end electronics based on the waveform sampling technique optimized for the new NUV SiPM. Measurements on 1×\times1 mm2^2, 3×\times3 mm2^2, and 6×\times6 mm2^2 NUV SiPMs coupled to the front-end electronics are presentedComment: In Proceedings of the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC2015), The Hague, The Netherlands. All CTA contributions at arXiv:1508.0589

    Osservatorio sulle politiche della IeFP nelle Regioni italiane. Presentazione di un progetto di ricerca

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    Il contributo illustra l'impianto generale di un percorso di ricerca che sta per prendere il via e che nasce da una collaborazione stabile tra la Federazione CNOS-FAP e il Dipartimento di Filosofia, Pedagogia e Psicologia dell'Universit\ue0 di Verona. Vengono presentati il quadro di riferimento sul sistema di IeFP, gli obiettivi e le domande di ricerca, l'impianto metodologico e gli sviluppi possibili della ricerca

    Challenges in IAQ for Indoor Spaces: A Comparison of the Reference Guideline Values of Indoor Air Pollutants from the Governments and International Institutions

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    Since people spend most of their time inside buildings, indoor air quality (IAQ) remains a highlighted topic to ensure in the built environment to improve public health, especially for vulnerable users. To achieve a better indoor environment quality (IEQ), some countries’ governments or regional institutions have developed and published reference guideline values of various air pollutants to prevent the IAQ from becoming adverse to occupants. Beyond guidelines by World Health Organization (WHO), in some countries, there are specific institutional requirements on the IAQ, and others integrated it into the building regulation for the built environment. This paper is based on the literature research, summarized from previously conducted works by the authors, on the chemical reference values of IAQ-related regulations and guidelines published by several Governments or related institutions from various regions around the World. Despite these efforts at standardization and legislation, many indoor air quality monitoring activities conducted in several countries still fall short of the main indications produced. By comparing the reference values of 35 pollutants, both physical and chemical ones, which are proposed in documents from 23 regions included so far, the IAQ research and prevention actions on progress in different regions should be included in monitoring plans with guidelines/reference values in their current state. The outcome of the paper is to define the current trends and suggest some perspectives on the field of interest for improving the indoor air quality of generic spaces at an international level. It becomes evident that, at the global level, IAQ represents a complex political, social, and health challenge, which still suffers from the absence of a systematic and harmonized approach. This is not a new situation; the issue was raised more than 40 years ago, and despite efforts and a pandemic, the situation has not changed

    Upgrading Monocytes Therapy for Critical Limb Ischemia Patient Treatment: Pre-Clinical and GMP-Validation Aspects

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    Advanced cell therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are at the forefront of a new range of biopharmaceuticals. The use of ATMP has evolved and increased in the last decades, representing a new approach to treating diseases that are not effectively managed with conventional treatments. The standard worldwide recognized for drug production is the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), widely used in the pharma production of synthesized drugs but applying also to ATMP. GMP guidelines are worldwide recognized standards to manufacture medicinal products to guarantee high quality, safety, and efficacy. In this report, we describe the pre-clinical and the GMP upgrade of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) preparation, starting from peripheral blood and ending up with a GMP-grade clinical product ready to be used in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). We also evaluated production in hypoxic conditions to increase PBMC functional activity and angiogenic potential. Furthermore, we extensively analyzed the storage and transport conditions of the final product as required by the regulatory body for ATMPs. Altogether, results suggest that the whole manufacturing process can be performed for clinical application. Peripheral blood collected by a physician should be transported at room temperature, and PBMCs should be isolated in a clean room within 8 h of venipuncture. Frozen cells can be stored in nitrogen vapors and thawed for up to 12 months. PBMCs resuspended in 5% human albumin solution should be stored and transported at 4 degrees C before injection in patients within 24 h to thawing. Hypoxic conditioning of PBMCs should be implemented for clinical application, as it showed a significant enhancement of PBMC functional activity, in particular with increased adhesion, migration, and oxidative stress resistance. We demonstrated the feasibility and the quality of a GMP-enriched suspension of monocytes as an ATMP, tested in a clean room facility for all aspects related to production in respect of all the GMP criteria that allow its use as an ATMP. We think that these results could ease the way to the clinical application of ATMPs

    COVID-19 and living space challenge. Well-being and public health recommendations for a healthy, safe, and sustainable housing

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    Background and aim of the work: The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 is a strong reminder that the lockdown period has changed the way that people and communities live, work, and interact, and it’s necessary to make resilient the built environment, both outdoor and mainly the indoor spaces: housing, workplaces, public buildings, and entertainment facilities. How can we re-design the concept of Well-being and Public Health in relation to the living places of the future? Methods: According to the previous statements and scenario, this paper aims to integrate the building hygiene and well-being, focusing the possible responses, both existing and for the new buildings, taking home a strong message from this “period” of physical distancing. Results: The Well-being and Public Health recommendations for a healthy, safe, and sustainable housing are framed into the following key points: 1. Visible and accessible green elements and spaces; 2. Flexibility, adaptability, sharing, and crowding of living spaces, and compliant functions located into the buildings; 3. Re-appropriation of the basic principles and archetypes of sustainable architecture, thermal comfort and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ); 4. Water consumption and Wastewater Management; 5. Urban Solid Waste Management; 6. Housing automation and electromagnetic fields; 7. Indoor building and finishing materials. Conclusions: The Well-being and Public Health recommendations for a healthy, safe and sustainable housing may provide a useful basis for Designers, Policy Makers (fostering tax incentives for building renewal), Public Health experts and Local Health Agencies, in promoting actions and policies aimed to transform living places in healthier and Salutogenic spaces. (www.actabiomedica.it)

    Photodynamic therapy of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines mediated by 5-aminolevulinic acid and derivatives

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    The delta-amino acid 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), is the precursor of the endogenous photosensitiser Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), and is currently approved for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of certain superficial cancers. However, ALA-PDT is not very effective in diseases in which T-cells play a significant role. Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) is a group of non-Hodgkin malignant diseases, which includes mycosis fungoides (MF) and SĂ©zary syndrome (SS). In previous work, we have designed new ALA esters synthesised by three-component Passerini reactions, and some of them showed higher performance as compared to ALA. This work aimed to determine the efficacy as pro-photosensitisers of five new ALA esters of 2-hydroxy-N-arylacetamides (1f, 1 g, 1 h, 1i and 1 k) of higher lipophilicity than ALA in Myla cells of MF and HuT-78 cells of SS. We have also tested its effectiveness against ALA and the already marketed ALA methyl ester (Me-ALA) and ALA hexyl ester (He-ALA). Both cell Myla and SS cells were effectively and equally photoinactivated by ALA-PDT. Besides, the concentration of ALA required to induce half the maximal porphyrin synthesis was 209 ÎŒM for Myla and 169 ÎŒM for HuT-78 cells. As a criterion of efficacy, we calculated the concentration of the ALA derivatives necessary to induce half the plateau porphyrin values obtained from ALA. These values were achieved at concentrations 4 and 12 times lower compared to ALA, according to the derivative used. For He-ALA, concentrations were 24 to 25 times lower than required for ALA for inducing comparable porphyrin synthesis in both CTCL cells. The light doses for inducing 50% of cell death (LD50) for He-ALA, 1f, 1 g, 1 h and 1i were around 18 and 25 J/cm2 for Myla and HuT-78 cells respectively, after exposure to 0.05 mM concentrations of the compounds. On the other hand, the LD50s for the compound 1 k were 40 and 57 J/cm2 for Myla and HuT-78, respectively. In contrast, 0.05 mM of ALA and Me-ALA did not provoke photokilling since the concentration employed was far below the porphyrin saturation point for these compounds. Our results suggest the potential use of ALA derivatives for topical application in PDT treatment of MF and extracorporeal PDT for the depletion of activated T-cells in SS
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