335 research outputs found

    Robust vetoes for gravitational-wave burst triggers using known instrumental couplings

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    The search for signatures of transient, unmodelled gravitational-wave (GW) bursts in the data of ground-based interferometric detectors typically uses `excess-power' search methods. One of the most challenging problems in the burst-data-analysis is to distinguish between actual GW bursts and spurious noise transients that trigger the detection algorithms. In this paper, we present a unique and robust strategy to `veto' the instrumental glitches. This method makes use of the phenomenological understanding of the coupling of different detector sub-systems to the main detector output. The main idea behind this method is that the noise at the detector output (channel H) can be projected into two orthogonal directions in the Fourier space -- along, and orthogonal to, the direction in which the noise in an instrumental channel X would couple into H. If a noise transient in the detector output originates from channel X, it leaves the statistics of the noise-component of H orthogonal to X unchanged, which can be verified by a statistical hypothesis testing. This strategy is demonstrated by doing software injections in simulated Gaussian noise. We also formulate a less-rigorous, but computationally inexpensive alternative to the above method. Here, the parameters of the triggers in channel X are compared to the parameters of the triggers in channel H to see whether a trigger in channel H can be `explained' by a trigger in channel X and the measured transfer function.Comment: 14 Pages, 8 Figures, To appear in Class. Quantum Gra

    The primary cosmic ray composition between 10**15 and 10**16 eV from Extensive Air Showers electromagnetic and TeV muon data

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    The cosmic ray primary composition in the energy range between 10**15 and 10**16 eV, i.e., around the "knee" of the primary spectrum, has been studied through the combined measurements of the EAS-TOP air shower array (2005 m a.s.l., 10**5 m**2 collecting area) and the MACRO underground detector (963 m a.s.l., 3100 m w.e. of minimum rock overburden, 920 m**2 effective area) at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories. The used observables are the air shower size (Ne) measured by EAS-TOP and the muon number (Nmu) recorded by MACRO. The two detectors are separated on average by 1200 m of rock, and located at a respective zenith angle of about 30 degrees. The energy threshold at the surface for muons reaching the MACRO depth is approximately 1.3 TeV. Such muons are produced in the early stages of the shower development and in a kinematic region quite different from the one relevant for the usual Nmu-Ne studies. The measurement leads to a primary composition becoming heavier at the knee of the primary spectrum, the knee itself resulting from the steepening of the spectrum of a primary light component (p, He). The result confirms the ones reported from the observation of the low energy muons at the surface (typically in the GeV energy range), showing that the conclusions do not depend on the production region kinematics. Thus, the hadronic interaction model used (CORSIKA/QGSJET) provides consistent composition results from data related to secondaries produced in a rapidity region exceeding the central one. Such an evolution of the composition in the knee region supports the "standard" galactic acceleration/propagation models that imply rigidity dependent breaks of the different components, and therefore breaks occurring at lower energies in the spectra of the light nuclei.Comment: Submitted to Astroparticle Physic

    Final results of magnetic monopole searches with the MACRO experiment

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    We present the final results obtained by the MACRO experiment in the search for GUT magnetic monopoles in the penetrating cosmic radiation, for the range 4√ó10‚ąí5<ő≤<14\times 10^{-5}< \beta < 1. Several searches with all the MACRO sub-detectors (i.e. scintillation counters, limited streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors) were performed, both in stand alone and combined ways. No candidates were detected and a 90% Confidence Level (C.L.) upper limit to the local magnetic monopole flux was set at the level of 1.4√ó10‚ąí161.4\times 10^{-16} cm‚ąí2^{-2} s‚ąí1^{-1} sr‚ąí1^{-1}. This result is the first experimental limit obtained in direct searches which is well below the Parker bound in the whole ő≤\beta range in which GUT magnetic monopoles are expected.Comment: 12 pages, Latex, 9 figures and 2 Table

    Search for Nucleon Decays induced by GUT Magnetic Monopoles with the MACRO Experiment

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    The interaction of a Grand Unification Magnetic Monopole with a nucleon can lead to a barion-number violating process in which the nucleon decays into a lepton and one or more mesons (catalysis of nucleon decay). In this paper we report an experimental study of the effects of a catalysis process in the MACRO detector. Using a dedicated analysis we obtain new magnetic monopole (MM) flux upper limits at the level of ‚ąľ3‚čÖ10‚ąí16cm‚ąí2s‚ąí1sr‚ąí1\sim 3\cdot 10^{-16} cm^{-2} s^{-1} sr^{-1} for 1.1‚čÖ10‚ąí4‚ȧ‚ą£ő≤‚ą£‚ȧ5‚čÖ10‚ąí31.1\cdot 10^{-4} \le |\beta| \le 5\cdot 10^{-3}, based on the search for catalysis events in the MACRO data. We also analyze the dependence of the MM flux limit on the catalysis cross section.Comment: 12 pages, Latex, 10 figures and 2 Table

    Search for massive rare particles with MACRO

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    Massive rare particles have been searched for in the penetrating cosmic radiation using the MACRO apparatus at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories. Liquid scintillators, streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors have been used to search for magnetic monopoles (MMs). Based on no observation of such signals, stringent flux limits are established for MMs as slow as a few 10^(-5)c. The methods based on the scintillator and on the nuclear track subdetectors were also applied to search for nuclearites. Preliminary results of the searches for charged Q-balls are also presented.Comment: 20 pages, 9 EPS figures included with epsfi

    Matter Effects in Upward-Going Muons and Sterile Neutrino Oscillations

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    The angular distribution of upward-going muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos in the rock below the MACRO detector show anomalies in good agreement with two flavor neutrino-mu ==> neutrino-tau oscillations with maximum mixing and Delta m**2 around 0.0024 eV**2. Exploiting the dependence of magnitude of the matter effect on oscillation channel, and using a set of 809 upward-going muons observed in MACRO, we show that the two flavor neutrino-mu ==> neutrino-sterile oscillation is disfavored with 99% C.L. with respect to neutrino-mu ==> neutrino-tau.Comment: 7 pages 4 figures Submitted to Physics Letters

    The Observation of Up-going Charged Particles Produced by High Energy Muons in Underground Detectors

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    An experimental study of the production of up-going charged particles in inelastic interactions of down-going underground muons is reported, using data obtained from the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. In a sample of 12.2 10^6 single muons, corresponding to a detector livetime of 1.55 y, 243 events are observed having an up-going particle associated with a down-going muon. These events are analysed to determine the range and emission angle distributions of the up-going particle, corrected for detection and reconstruction efficiency. Measurements of the muon neutrino flux by underground detectors are often based on the observation of through-going and stopping muons produced in őĹőľ\nu_\mu interactions in the rock below the detector. Up-going particles produced by an undetected down-going muon are a potential background source in these measurements. The implications of this background for neutrino studies using MACRO are discussed.Comment: 18 pages, 9 figures. Accepted by Astrop. Physic

    Measurement of the residual energy of muons in the Gran Sasso underground Laboratories

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    The MACRO detector was located in the Hall B of the Gran Sasso underground Laboratories under an average rock overburden of 3700 hg/cm^2. A transition radiation detector composed of three identical modules, covering a total horizontal area of 36 m^2, was installed inside the empty upper part of the detector in order to measure the residual energy of muons. This paper presents the measurement of the residual energy of single and double muons crossing the apparatus. Our data show that double muons are more energetic than single ones. This measurement is performed over a standard rock depth range from 3000 to 6500 hg/cm^2.Comment: 28 pages, 9 figure

    New results on solar neutrino fluxes from 192 days of Borexino data

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    We report the direct measurement of the ^7Be solar neutrino signal rate performed with the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The interaction rate of the 0.862 MeV ^7Be neutrinos is 49+-3(stat)+-4(syst) counts/(day * 100ton). The hypothesis of no oscillation for ^7Be solar neutrinos is inconsistent with our measurement at the 4sigma level. Our result is the first direct measurement of the survival probability for solar nu_e in the transition region between matter-enhanced and vacuum-driven oscillations. The measurement improves the experimental determination of the flux of ^7Be, pp, and CNO solar nu_e, and the limit on the magnetic moment of neutrinos
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