179 research outputs found

    A Bast-like valve in the pigeon?

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    The first description of the presence of a utriculo-endolymphatic valve in human fetuses was given by Bast in 1928. Since then this valve-like structure is called Bast’s valve. Its exact function has not yet been established. The general opinion is that it has a protective function by having the possibility to separate the superior endolymphatic compartments of the labyrinth from the inferior compartment. Phylogenetically seen birds are the first vertebrates with a cochlear duct and a distinct inferior and superior part of the labyrinth. A structure in the pigeon inner ear, resembling Bast’s valve in mammals, is described

    Sensory cutaneous papillae in the sea lamprey (Petromyzonmarinus L.) : I. Neuroanatomy and physiology

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    Molecules present in an animal's environment can indicate the presence of predators,food, or sexual partners and consequently, induce migratory, reproductive, foraging,or escape behaviors. Three sensory systems, the olfactory, gustatory, and solitarychemosensory cell (SCC) systems detect chemical stimuli in vertebrates. While agreat deal of research has focused on the olfactory and gustatory system over theyears, it is only recently that significant attention has been devoted to the SCC sys-tem. The SCCs are microvillous cells that were first discovered on the skin of fish,and later in amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. Lampreys also possess SCCs that areparticularly numerous on cutaneous papillae. However, little is known regarding theirprecise distribution, innervation, and function. Here, we show that sea lampreys(Petromyzon marinus L.) have cutaneous papillae located around the oral disk, nostril,gill pores, and on the dorsal fins and that SCCs are particularly numerous on thesepapillae. Tract-tracing experiments demonstrated that the oral and nasal papillae areinnervated by the trigeminal nerve, the gill pore papillae are innervated by branchialnerves, and the dorsal fin papillae are innervated by spinal nerves. We also character-ized the response profile of gill pore papillae to some chemicals and showed thattrout-derived chemicals, amino acids, and a bile acid produced potent responses.Together with a companion study (Suntres et al., Journal of Comparative Neurology,this issue), our results provide new insights on the function and evolution of the SCCsystem in vertebrates

    Bmp4 Is Essential for the Formation of the Vestibular Apparatus that Detects Angular Head Movements

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    Angular head movements in vertebrates are detected by the three semicircular canals of the inner ear and their associated sensory tissues, the cristae. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4), a member of the Transforming growth factor family (TGF-β), is conservatively expressed in the developing cristae in several species, including zebrafish, frog, chicken, and mouse. Using mouse models in which Bmp4 is conditionally deleted within the inner ear, as well as chicken models in which Bmp signaling is knocked down specifically in the cristae, we show that Bmp4 is essential for the formation of all three cristae and their associated canals. Our results indicate that Bmp4 does not mediate the formation of sensory hair and supporting cells within the cristae by directly regulating genes required for prosensory development in the inner ear such as Serrate1 (Jagged1 in mouse), Fgf10, and Sox2. Instead, Bmp4 most likely mediates crista formation by regulating Lmo4 and Msx1 in the sensory region and Gata3, p75Ngfr, and Lmo4 in the non-sensory region of the crista, the septum cruciatum. In the canals, Bmp2 and Dlx5 are regulated by Bmp4, either directly or indirectly. Mechanisms involved in the formation of sensory organs of the vertebrate inner ear are thought to be analogous to those regulating sensory bristle formation in Drosophila. Our results suggest that, in comparison to sensory bristles, crista formation within the inner ear requires an additional step of sensory and non-sensory fate specification

    Sur l'enquête anthropologique en Suède

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    Retzius G. Sur l'enquête anthropologique en Suède. In: Bulletins de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris, V° Série. Tome 2, 1901. pp. 303-305
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