225 research outputs found

    Community Aliveness: Discovering Interaction Decay Patterns in Online Social Communities

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    Online Social Communities (OSCs) provide a medium for connecting people, sharing news, eliciting information, and finding jobs, among others. The dynamics of the interaction among the members of OSCs is not always growth dynamics. Instead, a decay\textit{decay} or inactivity\textit{inactivity} dynamics often happens, which makes an OSC obsolete. Understanding the behavior and the characteristics of the members of an inactive community help to sustain the growth dynamics of these communities and, possibly, prevents them from being out of service. In this work, we provide two prediction models for predicting the interaction decay of community members, namely: a Simple Threshold Model (STM) and a supervised machine learning classification framework. We conducted evaluation experiments for our prediction models supported by a ground truth\textit{ground truth} of decayed communities extracted from the StackExchange platform. The results of the experiments revealed that it is possible, with satisfactory prediction performance in terms of the F1-score and the accuracy, to predict the decay of the activity of the members of these communities using network-based attributes and network-exogenous attributes of the members. The upper bound of the prediction performance of the methods we used is 0.910.91 and 0.830.83 for the F1-score and the accuracy, respectively. These results indicate that network-based attributes are correlated with the activity of the members and that we can find decay patterns in terms of these attributes. The results also showed that the structure of the decayed communities can be used to support the alive communities by discovering inactive members.Comment: pre-print for the 4th European Network Intelligence Conference - 11-12 September 2017 Duisburg, German

    Communicability across evolving networks

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    Many natural and technological applications generate time ordered sequences of networks, defined over a fixed set of nodes; for example time-stamped information about ‘who phoned who’ or ‘who came into contact with who’ arise naturally in studies of communication and the spread of disease. Concepts and algorithms for static networks do not immediately carry through to this dynamic setting. For example, suppose A and B interact in the morning, and then B and C interact in the afternoon. Information, or disease, may then pass from A to C, but not vice versa. This subtlety is lost if we simply summarize using the daily aggregate network given by the chain A-B-C. However, using a natural definition of a walk on an evolving network, we show that classic centrality measures from the static setting can be extended in a computationally convenient manner. In particular, communicability indices can be computed to summarize the ability of each node to broadcast and receive information. The computations involve basic operations in linear algebra, and the asymmetry caused by time’s arrow is captured naturally through the non-mutativity of matrix-matrix multiplication. Illustrative examples are given for both synthetic and real-world communication data sets. We also discuss the use of the new centrality measures for real-time monitoring and prediction

    The evolution of interdisciplinarity in physics research

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    Science, being a social enterprise, is subject to fragmentation into groups that focus on specialized areas or topics. Often new advances occur through cross-fertilization of ideas between sub-fields that otherwise have little overlap as they study dissimilar phenomena using different techniques. Thus to explore the nature and dynamics of scientific progress one needs to consider the large-scale organization and interactions between different subject areas. Here, we study the relationships between the sub-fields of Physics using the Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme (PACS) codes employed for self-categorization of articles published over the past 25 years (1985-2009). We observe a clear trend towards increasing interactions between the different sub-fields. The network of sub-fields also exhibits core-periphery organization, the nucleus being dominated by Condensed Matter and General Physics. However, over time Interdisciplinary Physics is steadily increasing its share in the network core, reflecting a shift in the overall trend of Physics research.Comment: Published version, 10 pages, 8 figures + Supplementary Informatio

    Analyzing Users' Activity in On-line Social Networks over Time through a Multi-Agent Framework

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    [EN] The number of people and organizations using online social networks as a new way of communication is continually increasing. Messages that users write in networks and their interactions with other users leave a digital trace that is recorded. In order to understand what is going on in these virtual environments, it is necessary systems that collect, process, and analyze the information generated. The majority of existing tools analyze information related to an online event once it has finished or in a specific point of time (i.e., without considering an in-depth analysis of the evolution of users activity during the event). They focus on an analysis based on statistics about the quantity of information generated in an event. In this article, we present a multi-agent system that automates the process of gathering data from users activity in social networks and performs an in-depth analysis of the evolution of social behavior at different levels of granularity in online events based on network theory metrics. We evaluated its functionality analyzing users activity in events on Twitter.This work is partially supported by the PROME-TEOII/2013/019, TIN2014-55206-R, TIN2015-65515-C4-1-R, H2020-ICT-2015-688095.Del Val Noguera, E.; Martínez, C.; Botti, V. (2016). Analyzing Users' Activity in On-line Social Networks over Time through a Multi-Agent Framework. Soft Computing. 20(11):4331-4345. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00500-016-2301-0S433143452011Ahn Y-Y, Han S, Kwak H, Moon S, Jeong H (2007) Analysis of topological characteristics of huge online social networking services. In: Proceedings of the 16th WWW, pp 835–844Bastiaensens S, Vandebosch H, Poels K, Cleemput KV, DeSmet A, Bourdeaudhuij ID (2014) Cyberbullying on social network sites. an experimental study into behavioural intentions to help the victim or reinforce the bully. Comput Hum Behav 31:259–271Benevenuto F, Rodrigues T, Cha M, Almeida V (2009) Characterizing user behavior in online social networks. In: Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement conference. ACM, pp 49–62Borge-Holthoefer J, Rivero A, García I, Cauhé E, Ferrer A, Ferrer D, Francos D, Iñiguez D, Pérez MP, Ruiz G et al (2011) Structural and dynamical patterns on online social networks: the Spanish may 15th movement as a case study. PLoS One 6(8):e23883Borondo J, Morales AJ, Losada JC, Benito RM (2013) Characterizing and modeling an electoral campaign in the context of Twitter: 2011 Spanish presidential election as a case studyCatanese SA, De Meo P, Ferrara E, Fiumara G, Provetti A (2011) Crawling facebook for social network analysis purposes. In: Proceedings of the international conference on web intelligence, mining and semantics. ACM, p 52Cha M, Mislove A, Gummadi KP (2009) A measurement-driven analysis of information propagation in the flickr social network. In: Proceedings of the 18th international conference on World Wide Web. ACM, pp 721–730del Val E, Martínez C, Botti V (2015a) A multi-agent framework for the analysis of users behavior over time in on-line social networks. In: 10th International conference on soft computing models in industrial and environmental applications. Springer, Berlin, pp 191–201del Val E, Rebollo M, Botti V (2015b) Does the type of event influence how user interactions evolve on twitter? PLOS One 10(5):e0124049Eurostat (2016a) Internet use statistics—individuals. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Internet_use_statistics_-_individuals . Accessed 29 April 2016Eurostat (2016b) Social media—statistics on the use by enterprises. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Social_media_-_statistics_on_the_use_by_enterprises#Further_Eurostat_information . Accessed 29 April 2016García Fornes AM, Rodrigo Solaz M, Terrasa Barrena AM, Inglada J, Javier V, Jorge Cano J, Mulet Mengual L, Palomares Chust A, Búrdalo Rapa LA, Giret Boggino AS et al (2015) Magentix 2 user’s manualGolbeck J, Robles C, Turner K (2011) Predicting personality with social media. In: CHI’11, pp 253–262Guimerà R, Llorente A, Moro E, Sales-Pardo M (2012) Predicting human preferences using the block structure of complex social networks. PloS One 7(9):e44620Huberman BA, Romero DM, Wu F (2008) Social networks that matter: Twitter under the microscope. arXiv preprint arXiv:0812.1045Jamali M, Abolhassani H (2006) Different aspects of social network analysis. In: 2006 IEEE/WIC/ACM international conference on web intelligence (WI 2006 main conference proceedings)(WI’06). IEEE, pp 66–72Jiang Y, Jiang J (2014) Understanding social networks from a multiagent perspective. Parallel Distrib Syst IEEE Trans 25(10):2743–2759Kossinets G, Watts D (2006) Empirical analysis of an evolving social network. Science 311(5757):88–90Kumar R, Novak J, Tomkins A (2010) Structure and evolution of online social networks. In: Yu PS, Han J, Faloutsos C (eds) Link mining: models, algorithms, and applications. Springer, New York, pp 337–357Lazer D (2009) Life in the network: the coming age of computational social science. Science 323(5915):721–723Leskovec J, Adamic LA, Huberman BA (2007) The dynamics of viral marketing. ACM Trans Web 1(1):5Licoppe C, Smoreda Z (2005) Are social networks technologically embedded? How networks are changing today with changes in communication technology. Soc Netw 27(4):317–335Lotan G, Graeff E, Ananny M, Gaffney D, Pearce I, Boyd D (2011) The revolutions were tweeted: information flows during the 2011 tunisian and egyptian revolutions. Int J Commun 5:1375–1405Peña-López I, Congosto M, Aragón P (2013) Spanish indignados and the evolution of 15M: towards networked para-institutions. Big data: challenges and opportunities, pp 25–26Perliger A, Pedahzur A (2011) Social network analysis in the study of terrorism and political violence. PS Polit Sci Polit 44:45–50Romero DM, Galuba W, Asur S, Huberman BA (2011a) Influence and passivity in social media. In: Proceedings of the 20th WWW, pp 113–114Romero DM, Meeder B, Kleinberg J (2011b) Differences in the mechanics of information diffusion across topics: idioms, political hashtags, and complex contagion on Twitter. In: Proceedings of the 20th WWW, pp 695–704Stockman FN, Doreian P, (1997) Evolution of social networks: processes and principles. In: Doreian P, Stokman FN (eds) Evolution of social networks. Routledge, London, pp 233–250Traud AL, Mucha PJ, Porter MA (2012) Social structure of facebook networks. Phys A Stat Mech Its Appl 391(16):4165–4180Ugander J, Karrer B, Backstrom L, Marlow C (2011) The anatomy of the Facebook social graph. arXiv preprint arXiv:1111.4503Valero S, del Val E, Alemany J, Botti V (2015) Using magentix2 in smart-home environments. In: 10th International conference on soft computing models in industrial and environmental applications. Springer, Berlin, pp 27–37Wasserman S, Faust K (1994) Social network analysis: methods and applications. 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    Evolution of Cooperation and Coordination in a Dynamically Networked Society

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    Situations of conflict giving rise to social dilemmas are widespread in society and game theory is one major way in which they can be investigated. Starting from the observation that individuals in society interact through networks of acquaintances, we model the co-evolution of the agents' strategies and of the social network itself using two prototypical games, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Stag Hunt. Allowing agents to dismiss ties and establish new ones, we find that cooperation and coordination can be achieved through the self-organization of the social network, a result that is non-trivial, especially in the Prisoner's Dilemma case. The evolution and stability of cooperation implies the condensation of agents exploiting particular game strategies into strong and stable clusters which are more densely connected, even in the more difficult case of the Prisoner's Dilemma.Comment: 18 pages, 14 figures. to appea

    From sparse to dense and from assortative to disassortative in online social networks

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    Inspired by the analysis of several empirical online social networks, we propose a simple reaction-diffusion-like coevolving model, in which individuals are activated to create links based on their states, influenced by local dynamics and their own intention. It is shown that the model can reproduce the remarkable properties observed in empirical online social networks; in particular, the assortative coefficients are neutral or negative, and the power law exponents are smaller than 2. Moreover, we demonstrate that, under appropriate conditions, the model network naturally makes transition(s) from assortative to disassortative, and from sparse to dense in their characteristics. The model is useful in understanding the formation and evolution of online social networks.Comment: 10 pages, 7 figures and 2 table

    Testing for Network and Spatial Autocorrelation

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    Testing for dependence has been a well-established component of spatial statistical analyses for decades. In particular, several popular test statistics have desirable properties for testing for the presence of spatial autocorrelation in continuous variables. In this paper we propose two contributions to the literature on tests for autocorrelation. First, we propose a new test for autocorrelation in categorical variables. While some methods currently exist for assessing spatial autocorrelation in categorical variables, the most popular method is unwieldy, somewhat ad hoc, and fails to provide grounds for a single omnibus test. Second, we discuss the importance of testing for autocorrelation in data sampled from the nodes of a network, motivated by social network applications. We demonstrate that our proposed statistic for categorical variables can both be used in the spatial and network setting

    The impact of partially missing communities~on the reliability of centrality measures

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    Network data is usually not error-free, and the absence of some nodes is a very common type of measurement error. Studies have shown that the reliability of centrality measures is severely affected by missing nodes. This paper investigates the reliability of centrality measures when missing nodes are likely to belong to the same community. We study the behavior of five commonly used centrality measures in uniform and scale-free networks in various error scenarios. We find that centrality measures are generally more reliable when missing nodes are likely to belong to the same community than in cases in which nodes are missing uniformly at random. In scale-free networks, the betweenness centrality becomes, however, less reliable when missing nodes are more likely to belong to the same community. Moreover, centrality measures in scale-free networks are more reliable in networks with stronger community structure. In contrast, we do not observe this effect for uniform networks. Our observations suggest that the impact of missing nodes on the reliability of centrality measures might not be as severe as the literature suggests

    A Regularized Graph Layout Framework for Dynamic Network Visualization

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    Many real-world networks, including social and information networks, are dynamic structures that evolve over time. Such dynamic networks are typically visualized using a sequence of static graph layouts. In addition to providing a visual representation of the network structure at each time step, the sequence should preserve the mental map between layouts of consecutive time steps to allow a human to interpret the temporal evolution of the network. In this paper, we propose a framework for dynamic network visualization in the on-line setting where only present and past graph snapshots are available to create the present layout. The proposed framework creates regularized graph layouts by augmenting the cost function of a static graph layout algorithm with a grouping penalty, which discourages nodes from deviating too far from other nodes belonging to the same group, and a temporal penalty, which discourages large node movements between consecutive time steps. The penalties increase the stability of the layout sequence, thus preserving the mental map. We introduce two dynamic layout algorithms within the proposed framework, namely dynamic multidimensional scaling (DMDS) and dynamic graph Laplacian layout (DGLL). We apply these algorithms on several data sets to illustrate the importance of both grouping and temporal regularization for producing interpretable visualizations of dynamic networks.Comment: To appear in Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, supporting material (animations and MATLAB toolbox) available at http://tbayes.eecs.umich.edu/xukevin/visualization_dmkd_201

    DINE : a framework for deep incomplete network embedding

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    Network representation learning (NRL) plays a vital role in a variety of tasks such as node classification and link prediction. It aims to learn low-dimensional vector representations for nodes based on network structures or node attributes. While embedding techniques on complete networks have been intensively studied, in real-world applications, it is still a challenging task to collect complete networks. To bridge the gap, in this paper, we propose a Deep Incomplete Network Embedding method, namely DINE. Specifically, we first complete the missing part including both nodes and edges in a partially observable network by using the expectation-maximization framework. To improve the embedding performance, we consider both network structures and node attributes to learn node representations. Empirically, we evaluate DINE over three networks on multi-label classification and link prediction tasks. The results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed approach compared against state-of-the-art baselines. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.E
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