7,464 research outputs found

    Magnetic topology and surface differential rotation on the K1 subgiant of the RS CVn system HR 1099

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    We present here spectropolarimetric observations of the RS CVn system HR 1099 (V711 Tau) secured from 1998 February to 2002 January with the spectropolarimeter MuSiCoS at the Telescope Bernard Lyot (Observatoire du Pic du Midi, France). We apply Zeeman-Doppler Imaging and reconstruct brightness and magnetic surface topologies of the K1 primary subgiant of the system, at five different epochs. We confirm the presence of large, axisymmetric regions where the magnetic field is mainly azimuthal, providing further support to the hypothesis that dynamo processes may be distributed throughout the whole convective zone in this star. We study the short-term evolution of surface structures from a comparison of our images with observations secured at close-by epochs by Donati et al. (2003) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We conclude that the small-scale brightness and magnetic patterns undergo major changes within a timescale of 4 to 6 weeks, while the largest structures remain stable over several years. We report the detection of a weak surface differential rotation (both from brightness and magnetic tracers) indicating that the equator rotates faster than the pole with a difference in rotation rate between the pole and the equator about 4 times smaller than that of the Sun. This result suggests that tidal forces also impact the global dynamic equilibrium of convective zones in cool active stars.Comment: accepted by MNRA

    The magnetic fields of forming solar-like stars

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    Magnetic fields play a crucial role at all stages of the formation of low mass stars and planetary systems. In the final stages, in particular, they control the kinematics of in-falling gas from circumstellar discs, and the launching and collimation of spectacular outflows. The magnetic coupling with the disc is thought to influence the rotational evolution of the star, while magnetised stellar winds control the braking of more evolved stars and may influence the migration of planets. Magnetic reconnection events trigger energetic flares which irradiate circumstellar discs with high energy particles that influence the disc chemistry and set the initial conditions for planet formation. However, it is only in the past few years that the current generation of optical spectropolarimeters have allowed the magnetic fields of forming solar-like stars to be probed in unprecedented detail. In order to do justice to the recent extensive observational programs new theoretical models are being developed that incorporate magnetic fields with an observed degree of complexity. In this review we draw together disparate results from the classical electromagnetism, molecular physics/chemistry, and the geophysics literature, and demonstrate how they can be adapted to construct models of the large scale magnetospheres of stars and planets. We conclude by examining how the incorporation of multipolar magnetic fields into new theoretical models will drive future progress in the field through the elucidation of several observational conundrums.Comment: 55 pages, review article accepted for publication in Reports on Progress in Physics. Astro-ph version includes additional appendice

    Estimation of the infinitesimal generator by square-root approximation

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    For the analysis of molecular processes, the estimation of time-scales, i.e., transition rates, is very important. Estimating the transition rates between molecular conformations is -- from a mathematical point of view -- an invariant subspace projection problem. A certain infinitesimal generator acting on function space is projected to a low-dimensional rate matrix. This projection can be performed in two steps. First, the infinitesimal generator is discretized, then the invariant subspace is approxi-mated and used for the subspace projection. In our approach, the discretization will be based on a Voronoi tessellation of the conformational space. We will show that the discretized infinitesimal generator can simply be approximated by the geometric average of the Boltzmann weights of the Voronoi cells. Thus, there is a direct correla-tion between the potential energy surface of molecular structures and the transition rates of conformational changes. We present results for a 2d-diffusion process and Alanine dipeptide

    Magnetometry of the classical T Tauri star GQ Lup: non-stationary dynamos & spin evolution of young Suns

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    We report here results of spectropolarimetric observations of the classical T Tauri star (cTTS) GQ Lup carried out with ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) in the framework of the "Magnetic Protostars and Planets" (MaPP) programme, and obtained at 2 different epochs (2009 July & 2011 June). From these observations, we first infer that GQ Lup has a photospheric temperature of 4,300+-50\^A K and a rotation period of 8.4+-0.3 d; it implies that it is a 1.05+-0.07 Msun star viewed at an inclination of ~30deg, with an age of 2-5 Myr, a radius of 1.7+-0.2 Rsun, and has just started to develop a radiative core. Large Zeeman signatures are clearly detected at all times, both in photospheric lines & in accretion-powered emission lines, probing longitudinal fields of up to 6 kG and hence making GQ Lup the cTTS with the strongest large-scale fields known as of today. Rotational modulation of Zeeman signatures is clearly different between our 2 runs, demonstrating that large-scale fields of cTTSs are evolving with time and are likely produced by non-stationary dynamo processes. Using tomographic imaging, we reconstruct maps of the large-scale field, of the photospheric brightness & of the accretion-powered emission of GQ Lup. We find that the magnetic topology is mostly poloidal & axisymmetric; moreover, the octupolar component of the large-scale field (of strength 2.4 & 1.6 kG in 2009 & 2011) dominates the dipolar component (of strength ~1 kG) by a factor of ~2, consistent with the fact that GQ Lup is no longer fully-convective. GQ Lup also features dominantly poleward magnetospheric accretion at both epochs. The large-scale dipole of GQ Lup is however not strong enough to disrupt the surrounding accretion disc further than about half-way to the corotation radius, suggesting that GQ Lup should rapidly spin up like other similar partly-convective cTTSs (abridged).Comment: MNRAS, in press (17 pages, 10 figures, 1 table

    Rotationally Modulated X-ray Emission from T Tauri Stars

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    We have modelled the rotational modulation of X-ray emission from T Tauri stars assuming that they have isothermal, magnetically confined coronae. By extrapolating surface magnetograms we find that T Tauri coronae are compact and clumpy, such that rotational modulation arises from X-ray emitting regions being eclipsed as the star rotates. Emitting regions are close to the stellar surface and inhomogeneously distributed about the star. However some regions of the stellar surface, which contain wind bearing open field lines, are dark in X-rays. From simulated X-ray light curves, obtained using stellar parameters from the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project, we calculate X-ray periods and make comparisons with optically determined rotation periods. We find that X-ray periods are typically equal to, or are half of, the optical periods. Further, we find that X-ray periods are dependent upon the stellar inclination, but that the ratio of X-ray to optical period is independent of stellar mass and radius.Comment: 10 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Surface magnetic fields on two accreting T Tauri stars: CV Cha and CR Cha

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    We have produced brightness and magnetic field maps of the surfaces of CV Cha and CR Cha: two actively accreting G and K-type T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I star-forming cloud with ages of 3-5 Myr. Our magnetic field maps show evidence for strong, complex multi-polar fields similar to those obtained for young rapidly rotating main sequence stars. Brightness maps indicate the presence of dark polar caps and low latitude spots -- these brightness maps are very similar to those obtained for other pre-main sequence and rapidly rotating main sequence stars. Only two other classical T Tauri stars have been studied using similar techniques so far: V2129 Oph and BP Tau. CV Cha and CR Cha show magnetic field patterns that are significantly more complex than those recovered for BP Tau, a fully convective T Tauri star. We discuss possible reasons for this difference and suggest that the complexity of the stellar magnetic field is related to the convection zone; with more complex fields being found in T Tauri stars with radiative cores (V2129 Oph, CV Cha and CR Cha). However, it is clearly necessary to conduct magnetic field studies of T Tauri star systems, exploring a wide range of stellar parameters in order to establish how they affect magnetic field generation, and thus how these magnetic fields are likely to affect the evolution of T Tauri star systems as they approach the main sequence.Comment: Accepted for publication by MNRAS: 15 pages, 11 figure

    Modeling X-ray emission from stellar coronae

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    By extrapolating from observationally derived surface magnetograms of low-mass stars we construct models of their coronal magnetic fields and compare the 3D field geometry with axial multipoles. AB Dor, which has a radiative core, has a very complex field, whereas V374 Peg, which is completely convective, has a simple dipolar field. We calculate global X-ray emission measures assuming that the plasma trapped along the coronal loops is in hydrostatic equilibrium and compare the differences between assuming isothermal coronae, or by considering a loop temperature profiles. Our preliminary results suggest that the non-isothermal model works well for the complex field of AB Dor, but not for the simple field of V374 Peg.Comment: 4 pages, proceedings of Cool Stars 15, St Andrews, July 2008, to be published in the Conference Proceedings Series of the American Institute of Physic

    Magnetic fields and accretion flows on the classical T Tauri star V2129 Oph

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    From observations collected with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter, we report the discovery of magnetic fields at the surface of the mildly accreting classical T Tauri star V2129 Oph. Zeeman signatures are detected, both in photospheric lines and in the emission lines formed at the base of the accretion funnels linking the disc to the protostar, and monitored over the whole rotation cycle of V2129 Oph. We observe that rotational modulation dominates the temporal variations of both unpolarized and circularly polarized line profiles. We reconstruct the large-scale magnetic topology at the surface of V2129 Oph from both sets of Zeeman signatures simultaneously. We find it to be rather complex, with a dominant octupolar component and a weak dipole of strengths 1.2 and 0.35 kG, respectively, both slightly tilted with respect to the rotation axis. The large-scale field is anchored in a pair of 2-kG unipolar radial field spots located at high latitudes and coinciding with cool dark polar spots at photospheric level. This large-scale field geometry is unusually complex compared to those of non-accreting cool active subgiants with moderate rotation rates. As an illustration, we provide a first attempt at modelling the magnetospheric topology and accretion funnels of V2129 Oph using field extrapolation. We find that the magnetosphere of V2129 Oph must extend to about 7R* to ensure that the footpoints of accretion funnels coincide with the high-latitude accretion spots on the stellar surface. It suggests that the stellar magnetic field succeeds in coupling to the accretion disc as far out as the corotation radius, and could possibly explain the slow rotation of V2129 Oph. The magnetospheric geometry we derive produces X-ray coronal fluxes typical of those observed in cTTSs.Comment: MNRAS, in press (18 pages, 17 figures
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