10 research outputs found

    Brāhmaṇas in Early Medieval Bengal: Data of Inscriptional References

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    A New Copperplate Inscription: Grant of the Village Kumudavillikā during the Reign of Śaśāṅka, Year 8

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    International audienceThis article presents the fifth copperplate inscription explicitly mentioning Śaśāṅka, who was king of Gauḍa in the first quarter of the seventh century CE. Formulated in Sanskrit prose, this document belongs to the class of land-sale grants, and concerns the purchase and donation of a village called Kumudavillikā in year 8 of Śaśāṅka’s reign. Among points of interest are the occurrence of the otherwise unknown term naumahattara and the use of the kārṣāpaṇa as a currency unit

    Diagnostic accuracy of tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

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    Background and aims The role of alphafetoprotein (AFP) in the diagnosis and surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is getting smaller owing to the advances in imaging modalities. The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic accuracy of tumor markers in small HCC and to find the optimal cutoff value of each tumor marker for efficient surveillance. Methods Studies in all languages were identified by searching MEDLINE from 1982 to 2002. Studies were included when they showed sensitivity and specificity for HCCs 5 cm or smaller and recruited only patients with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis as control. We assessed diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) for the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of tumor markers and positive likelihood ratios (LRs+) to find the optimal cutoff value. DORs and LRs+ were combined according to the random effect model. The summary receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was also assessed. Results Seventeen articles on three tumor markers—AFP, des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (DCP), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3)—were enrolled after full-text evaluation. AFP was inferior to DCP and AFP-L3 in both DOR (4.50 vs. 8.16 and 10.50) and area under the ROC curve (0.647 vs. 0.688 and 0.695). Optimal cutoff values that provide the best LR+ were 200 ng/ml for AFP, 40 mAU/ml for DCP, and 15% for AFP-L3. Conclusions Diagnostic accuracy of AFP in small HCC was substantially limited. Surveillance including other tumor markers with optimal cutoff value should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of the policy

    Intravenous alteplase for stroke with unknown time of onset guided by advanced imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data

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    Background: Patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset have been previously excluded from thrombolysis. We aimed to establish whether intravenous alteplase is safe and effective in such patients when salvageable tissue has been identified with imaging biomarkers. Methods: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data for trials published before Sept 21, 2020. Randomised trials of intravenous alteplase versus standard of care or placebo in adults with stroke with unknown time of onset with perfusion-diffusion MRI, perfusion CT, or MRI with diffusion weighted imaging-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (DWI-FLAIR) mismatch were eligible. The primary outcome was favourable functional outcome (score of 0–1 on the modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) at 90 days indicating no disability using an unconditional mixed-effect logistic-regression model fitted to estimate the treatment effect. Secondary outcomes were mRS shift towards a better functional outcome and independent outcome (mRS 0–2) at 90 days. Safety outcomes included death, severe disability or death (mRS score 4–6), and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020166903. Findings: Of 249 identified abstracts, four trials met our eligibility criteria for inclusion: WAKE-UP, EXTEND, THAWS, and ECASS-4. The four trials provided individual patient data for 843 individuals, of whom 429 (51%) were assigned to alteplase and 414 (49%) to placebo or standard care. A favourable outcome occurred in 199 (47%) of 420 patients with alteplase and in 160 (39%) of 409 patients among controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·49 [95% CI 1·10–2·03]; p=0·011), with low heterogeneity across studies (I 2=27%). Alteplase was associated with a significant shift towards better functional outcome (adjusted common OR 1·38 [95% CI 1·05–1·80]; p=0·019), and a higher odds of independent outcome (adjusted OR 1·50 [1·06–2·12]; p=0·022). In the alteplase group, 90 (21%) patients were severely disabled or died (mRS score 4–6), compared with 102 (25%) patients in the control group (adjusted OR 0·76 [0·52–1·11]; p=0·15). 27 (6%) patients died in the alteplase group and 14 (3%) patients died among controls (adjusted OR 2·06 [1·03–4·09]; p=0·040). The prevalence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was higher in the alteplase group than among controls (11 [3%] vs two [<1%], adjusted OR 5·58 [1·22–25·50]; p=0·024). Interpretation: In patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset with a DWI-FLAIR or perfusion mismatch, intravenous alteplase resulted in better functional outcome at 90 days than placebo or standard care. A net benefit was observed for all functional outcomes despite an increased risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. Although there were more deaths with alteplase than placebo, there were fewer cases of severe disability or death. Funding: None
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