1,118 research outputs found

    Effects of Acute Bouts of Aerobic Exercise on Adipokines in Individuals with Mid-Spectrum Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Adipokines have been known to influence various health-related complications such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular diseases. Fluctuations in adipokines are commonly seen from changes in body composition, however, some evidence shows acute changes may be seen from exercise. Individuals with CKD are commonly characterized by a decline in renal filtration and systemic inflammation. It may be possible that an acute bout of aerobic exercise may improve pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokine concentrations typically seen in individuals with moderate stages of CKD. PURPOSE: To determine the acute effects of aerobic exercise on adipokine concentrations in individuals with moderate stages of CKD. METHODS: Fourteen participants (8 females and 6 males, age = 58.7 ± 9.3 yrs., and %BF = 36.0 ± 9.6) were classified as having moderate stages of CKD (stages G3 and G4). Participants completed 30 min of steady-state moderate intensity exercise (SSE) at 65% VO2 reserve and high-intensity interval training (HIIE) at a 90% VO2 reserve separated by 2 min of slow walking (20% VO2 reserve) in a randomized, crossover design fashion. Venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, 1 h, and 24 h post-exercise. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA (p \u3c 0.05) and a paired t-test. If any significant main or interaction effects were found, a post-hoc test was performed. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in adiponectin and leptin levels within treatments. However, significant differences were seen between baseline and 24 h omentin concentrations when performing HIIE (F(2,26) = 5.001, p = .015). Omentin rose significantly 24 h after an acute bout of HIIE (214.69 ± 83.28 to 252.04 ± 91.22, p = .034). A paired t-test showed no significant differences between SSE and HIIE for adiponectin and leptin. Although, there was a significant difference between 24 h omentin concentrations for SSE and HIIE (t = -2.327, p \u3c .037). Omentin concentrations were significantly higher when performing HIIE (252.04 ± 91.22) as opposed to SSE (218.70 ± 82.00, p \u3c .001). CONCLUSION: Omentin plays an anti-inflammatory role in chronic diseases. Thus, individuals experiencing systemic inflammation from moderate stages of CKD may see benefits after performing an acute bout of HIIE due to the up-regulated release of omentin 24 h post-exercise

    The Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on Resistance Training-induced Adaptations

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    Background: Resistance exercise training (RET) is a common and well-established method to induce hypertrophy and improvement in strength. Interestingly, fish oil supplementation (FOS) may aug-ment RET-induced adaptations. However, few studies have been conducted on young, healthy adults. Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled design was used to determine the effect of FOS, a concentrated source of eicosapen-taenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), compared to placebo (PL) on RET-induced adaptations following a 10-week RET program (3 days·week−1). Body composition was measured by dual- energy x-ray absorptiometry (LBM, fat mass [FM], percent body fat [%BF]) and strength was measured by 1-repetition maximum bar-bell back squat (1RMSQT) and bench press (1RMBP) at PRE (week 0) and POST (10 weeks). Supplement compliance was assessed via self-report and bottle collection every two weeks and via fatty acid dried blood spot collection at PRE and POST. An a priori α- level of 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance and Cohen’s d was used to quantify effect sizes (ES). Results: Twenty-one of 28 male and female participants (FOS, n = 10 [4 withdrawals]; PL, n = 11 [3 withdrawals]) completed the 10- week progressive RET program and PRE/POST measurements. After 10-weeks, blood EPA+DHA substantially increased in the FOS group (+109.7%, p\u3c .001) and did not change in the PL group (+1.3%, p = .938). Similar between-group changes in LBM (FOS: +3.4%, PL: +2.4%, p = .457), FM (FOS: −5.2%, PL: 0.0%, p = .092), and %BF (FOS: −5.9%, PL: −2.5%, p = .136) were observed, although, the between- group ES was considered large for FM (d = 0.84). Absolute and relative (kg·kg [body mass]−1) 1RMBP was significantly higher in the FOS group compared to PL (FOS: +17.7% vs. PL: +9.7%, p = .047; FOS: +17.6% vs. PL: +7.3%, p = .011; respectively), whereas absolute 1RMSQT was similar between conditions (FOS: +28.8% vs. PL: +20.5%, p = .191). Relative 1RMSQT was higher in the FOS group (FOS: +29.3% vs. PL: +17.9%, p = .045). Conclusions: When combined with RET, FOS improves absolute and relative 1RM upper-body and relative 1RM lower-body strength to a greater extent than that observed in the PL group of young, recreationally trained adults

    The Impacts of Wrist Wrap Type and Sex on Bench Press Muscular Strength and Power

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    While wrist wraps have become increasingly prevalent in both competitive and recreational demographics, their posited ability to augment bench press performance by enhanced wrist stability still remains unclear. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of varying wrap styles on bench-specific muscular strength and associated power, as well as quantitative and subjective differences between sexes. METHODS: Eighteen resistance trained males and females (9M/9F; 24±4y; 176±33cm; 80±15kg) visited the laboratory on three separate occasions in randomized, crossover, and counterbalanced design to sport either a flexible wrist wrap (FW), stiff wrap (SW), or a no wrap control (NW) condition. All participants underwent a bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM) test and linear position transducer-derived peak power and velocity assessments. Furthermore, subjective stability (SS) and discomfort (SD) were determined promptly following 1RM attempts. Bench press performance and sex-collapsed subjective variables were analyzed using a two-way (condition x sex) mixed model ANOVA with repeated measures and a nonparametric Friedman’s ANOVA, respectively. Both analyses were performed at a p\u3c.05 significance level. RESULTS: Analyses failed to detect any main condition or interaction effects for bench press 1RM, however, a statistically significant main sex effect was observed (p\u3c.001; ηp2=.597) favoring males relative to females (p\u3c.001; 114±22kg vs 68±16kg). Both peak power and velocity failed to reveal any significant main condition or sex effects, nor any interactions. Nonparametric assessments further revealed significant wrist wrap condition effects for both SS (p\u3c.001; Kendall’s W=.628) and SD (p\u3c.001; Kendall’s W=.935), whereby NW was statistically more comfortable (p\u3c.001) than either wrap condition, without any difference between DW and SW (p\u3e.05). CONCLUSION: Although wrist wraps did not significantly alter bench press-specific strength and power, participants nonetheless perceived wrist wraps as subjectively more stable irrespective of increased discomfort. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The authors of this abstract would like to thank Peter Spence and SBD Apparel for generously donating the wrist wraps utilized in the present investigation

    Vitamin D Association with Renal Health and Filtration in Healthy Individuals Free of Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Pilot Study

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    The effect of vitamin D (VITD) on bone, muscle, and over health is well know in renal failure and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the influence of VITD on renal health and filtration (RHF) in healthy individuals is unclear. Currently, only serum creatinine concentration (sCr) methods are used to assess renal status in health individuals. However, newer biomarkers like serum Cystatin C (CyC) and urine epidermal growth factor (uEGF) show promise in evaluating baseline RHF. The impact of Vitamin D on filtration in healthy individuals of various ages is still unknown. PURPOSE: To determine the impact of VITD on RHF in healthy individuals of middle-aged status. METHODS: Thirty-six participants (n = 22 men; n = 14 women; age 37.6 + 12.4 yr; BF% 19.2 + 7.1%) agreed to participate in the research study. Blood and urine samples were obtained under standardized conditions for all individuals. VITD, CyC, uEGF, urine creatinine (uCr), uCr/uEGF ratio, sCR, and multiple estimates of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) - modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), CKD-EPI, CyC equations (CyC only and CyC combined with sCr) were assessed as a whole cohort and grouped (young = 20-39 yrs. (n = 22), older = 40-60 yrs. (n = 14)). Analysis was done using a paired sample t-tests, Pearson Correlation to compare VITD concentrations and markers of RHF. Linear regression analyses was performed to examine the relationship between VITD ability to predict RHF. All analyses were performed using SPSS (v. 28.0.1.1). RESULTS: There was no significant correlations found between VITD and markers of RHF in the entire cohort. Therefore, no predictive model was performed. The younger group showed strong negative correlation between VITD and MDRD (r = -0.575, p = 0.008), and that VITD was able to predict MDRD (R2 = 0.331, p = 0.008). No significant correlation observed in older group. CONCLUSIONS: VITD was correlated and able to predict a marker of RHF in healthy younger individuals, but not in older individuals. Based on the sample size and overall outcomes, continued research is needed to more accurately determine VITD effects on RHF in healthy populations

    Influence of Acute Turkesterone Dosing on Resting Metabolic Rate and Substrate Utilization in Recreationally-active Males

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    Turkesterone is a relatively novel phytoecdysteroid compound that has become increasingly popular amongst recreationally active adults seeking to improve body composition. Although many of the these hypothetical benefits arose from prior rodent data demonstrating enhanced substrate utilization, no data presently exist amongst humans in this regard. PURPOSE: to determine the effect of multiple turkesterone doses on both resting metabolic rate (RMR) and substrate utilization in a healthy human population. METHODS: Eleven recreationally active males (23.3±2.2y) visited the laboratory on three occasions separated by at least seven days and were randomized in single-blind, placebo-controlled, and counter-balanced crossover fashion to either 2000mg cellulose placebo (PLA), 1000mg turkesterone + 1000mg placebo, (1000T) or 2000mg (2000T) turkesterone. RMR and respiratory exchange ratio were assessed using a metabolic cart for 20 minutes prior to supplement provision (i.e. baseline [PRE)), as well as 60-minutes (POST60M), 120-minutes (POST120M), and 180-minutes (POST180M) post-acute supplementation timepoints at each visit. RMR, as well as both carbohydrate (CHO) and Fat (FAT) oxidation were analyzed using a two-way (condition [PLA, 1000T, 2000T] x time [PRE, POST60M, POST120M, POST180M) ANOVA with repeated measures at a significance level of pRESULTS: Analyses failed to reveal any significant condition, time, nor interaction effects for RMR, nor CHO or FAT oxidation (p\u3e0.05). Nonetheless, both 1000T (2.7%, 5.6%, and 7.8%) and 2000T (0.7%, 4.2%, and 3.6%) increased mean RMR above baseline at POST60M, POST120M, and POST180M timepoints, respectively. Conversely, PLA decreased mean RMR by 0.9% and 0.7% at POST60M and POST120M, respectively. Incidentally, the 1000T condition displayed increased mean FAT oxidation by 1.85, 5.34, and 7.96% at the POST60M, POST120M, and POST180M timepoints, respectively, and when compared to the consistent decreases observed with both PLA and 2000T. CONCLUSION: Although these data fail to display a significant turkesterone-mediated enhancement in the investigated metabolic parameters, there were interesting mean differences that should be further explored to determine any longitudinal and/or exercise-dependent permissive impacts on RMR and substrate utilization

    Influence of Acute Turkesterone Dosing on Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) and Subjective Digestibility Scores in Recreationally-active Males

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    Turkesterone is a relatively novel phytoecdysteroid compound that has become increasingly popular amongst recreationally active demographics. Despite prior in vitro data suggesting that this compound may support enhanced body composition via both insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-mediated protein synthesis, no human evidence exists in this regard nor how well its digestibility is tolerated. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of multiple turkesterone doses on serum IGF-1 and to report any gastrointestinal (GI) distress symptoms in a healthy human sample. METHODS: Eleven recreationally active males (23.3±2.2y) visited the laboratory on three occasions separated by at least seven days and were randomized in single-blind, placebo-controlled, and counter-balanced crossover fashion to either 2000mg cellulose placebo (PLA), 1000mg turkesterone + 1000mg placebo, (1000T) or 2000mg (2000T) turkesterone. Venous blood was sampled to determine serum IGF-1 concentrations and a GI distress questionnaire was (nausea, vomiting, heartburn symptoms, etc.) administered both at baseline (PRE), as well as 3-hours (POST3H) and 24-hours (POST24H) post-acute supplementation at each visit. Serum IGF-1 was analyzed using a two-way (condition [PLA, 1000T, 2000T] x time [PRE, POST3H, POST24H]) ANOVA with repeated measures at a significance level of pRESULTS: Analyses failed to reveal any significant condition (p=.180; ηp2=0.228), time (p=0.227; ηp2=.390), nor interaction effects (p=0.547; ηp2=0.211) for serum IGF-1. Moreover, no participants reported any GI distress symptoms across any condition and/or time permutation. CONCLUSION: Although the current study did not find any significant IGF-1-associated serum alterations to multiple acute turkesterone doses in the times assessed, there were fortunately no adverse GI symptoms experienced by the participants across any dose throughout the investigation. Nevertheless, these data support turkesterone supplementation is well tolerated and thus future research should build upon our analysis by employing a longitudinal supplementation regimen alongside an exercise intervention to elucidate the potential long-term and anabolism-permissive impacts of this compound on the presently-explored and additional associated parameters

    The Utilization of Body Composition to Predict Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Determine Association with CKD Stage in Individuals with Mid-Spectrum CKD: A Pilot Study

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    Body composition (BC), a measure of body fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), and bone mineral content (BMC), can be used as a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Prior studies have established a relationship between BC and VO2max in healthy individuals over 35 years of age. However, this relationship is poorly understood in chronic disease populations. The focus of the study was to assess the relationship between BC, cardiorespiratory fitness, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 24 (9 males and 15 females) individuals diagnosed with mid-spectrum CKD (stages G2–G3b) who completed a health screening, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan, and underwent a VO2max exercise test. Normality tests, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlations, t-tests, and ANOVAs were conducted in SAS v.9.4. The average percent body fat (%BF) was 36.28 ± 8.47%, LBM was 109.4 ± 29.1 lb, BMC was 2308.7 ± 735.1 g, and VO2max was 20.13 ± 5.04 mL/kg/min−1. BC was able to predict CRF via VO2max (R2 = 0.721, p p p p p p 2max, and CKD stage. The progression of the CKD stage was associated with lower LBM, BMC, and VO2max values, indicating a graded effect of BC on CRF and CKD stage

    Genome-wide association study of lung adenocarcinoma in East Asia and comparison with a European population.

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    Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer. Known risk variants explain only a small fraction of lung adenocarcinoma heritability. Here, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of lung adenocarcinoma of East Asian ancestry (21,658 cases and 150,676 controls; 54.5% never-smokers) and identified 12 novel susceptibility variants, bringing the total number to 28 at 25 independent loci. Transcriptome-wide association analyses together with colocalization studies using a Taiwanese lung expression quantitative trait loci dataset (n = 115) identified novel candidate genes, including FADS1 at 11q12 and ELF5 at 11p13. In a multi-ancestry meta-analysis of East Asian and European studies, four loci were identified at 2p11, 4q32, 16q23, and 18q12. At the same time, most of our findings in East Asian populations showed no evidence of association in European populations. In our studies drawn from East Asian populations, a polygenic risk score based on the 25 loci had a stronger association in never-smokers vs. individuals with a history of smoking (Pinteraction = 0.0058). These findings provide new insights into the etiology of lung adenocarcinoma in individuals from East Asian populations, which could be important in developing translational applications

    Genome-wide association study of lung adenocarcinoma in East Asia and comparison with a European population

    Get PDF
    Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer. Known risk variants explain only a small fraction of lung adenocarcinoma heritability. Here, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of lung adenocarcinoma of East Asian ancestry (21,658 cases and 150,676 controls; 54.5% never-smokers) and identified 12 novel susceptibility variants, bringing the total number to 28 at 25 independent loci. Transcriptome-wide association analyses together with colocalization studies using a Taiwanese lung expression quantitative trait loci dataset (n = 115) identified novel candidate genes, including FADS1 at 11q12 and ELF5 at 11p13. In a multi-ancestry meta-analysis of East Asian and European studies, four loci were identified at 2p11, 4q32, 16q23, and 18q12. At the same time, most of our findings in East Asian populations showed no evidence of association in European populations. In our studies drawn from East Asian populations, a polygenic risk score based on the 25 loci had a stronger association in never-smokers vs. individuals with a history of smoking (Pinteraction = 0.0058). These findings provide new insights into the etiology of lung adenocarcinoma in individuals from East Asian populations, which could be important in developing translational applications

    A Cross-Sectional Examination of Wrist Wrap Use Prevalence and Characterization for Ergogenic Purposes in Actively Competing Powerlifters

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    Purpose: Wrist wraps are regularly incorporated by competitive powerlifters, but several product-specific variations may influence any potential ergogenic benefits. In addition, the prevalence of athletic wrist wrap use is hitherto undescribed. Methods: Seventy actively competing powerlifters (n=70; 27±6y) who competed in the last two years were randomly recruited at sanctioned meets, whereby wrist wrap use descriptive data (wrap style [F or S], wrap length, and events used), wrap tightness (assessed via pulse oximeter-detected oxygen saturation (SpO2) and subjective discomfort [Borg CR10+]), as well as post-meet bench press one repetition maximum (1RM) were collected. Wrist wrap use prevalence data (wrap style, wrap length, and events used) were compared across TX, NC/SC, and CA regions, along with any potential correlations between both region-collapsed wrapped SpO2 and bench press. Finally, predictors of bench press 1RM (weight [kg], age [y], stiff wrap, wrap length, wrapped discomfort [WCR10+], and WSpO2) were assessed using linear regression, whereby all aforementioned statistical analyses were set at a significance level of p\u3c.05. Results: Analyses failed to detect any significant regional differences in wrap style, length, or events used (p\u3e0.05). Moreover, linear regression analysis revealed a significant effect (r2= 0.851, p = 0.02) where weight solely predicted bench press 1RM (p = 0.0433). Conclusions: Although we failed to detect any significant wrist wrap relationships, actively competing powerlifters nonetheless prominently utilize wraps across the regions assessed. Therefore, the potential for wrist wraps to augment bench press performance warrants further elucidation in a controlled, standardized investigation
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