19 research outputs found

    Unique Mode of Antiviral Action of a Marine Alkaloid against Ebola Virus and SARS-CoV-2.

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    Lamellarin α 20-sulfate is a cell-impenetrable marine alkaloid that can suppress infection that is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. We explored the antiviral action and mechanisms of this alkaloid against emerging enveloped RNA viruses that use endocytosis for infection. The alkaloid inhibited the infection of retroviral vectors that had been pseudotyped with the envelope glycoprotein of Ebola virus and SARS-CoV-2. The antiviral effects of lamellarin were independent of the retrovirus Gag-Pol proteins. Interestingly, although heparin and dextran sulfate suppressed the cell attachment of vector particles, lamellarin did not. In silico structural analyses of the trimeric glycoprotein of the Ebola virus disclosed that the principal lamellarin-binding site is confined to a previously unappreciated cavity near the NPC1-binding site and fusion loop, whereas those for heparin and dextran sulfate were dispersed across the attachment and fusion subunits of the glycoproteins. Notably, lamellarin binding to this cavity was augmented under conditions where the pH was 5.0. These results suggest that the final action of the alkaloid against Ebola virus is specific to events following endocytosis, possibly during conformational glycoprotein changes in the acidic environment of endosomes. Our findings highlight the unique biological and physicochemical features of lamellarin α 20-sulfate and should lead to the further use of broadly reactive antivirals to explore the structural mechanisms of virus replication

    Algicidal hydroxylated C18 unsaturated fatty acids from the red alga Tricleocarpa jejuensis: Identification, synthesis and biological activity

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    Bioassay-guided separation of a methanol extract of Tricleocarpa jejuensis by monitoring algicidal activity against the red tide phytoplankton Chattonella antiqua led to the isolation of an active fraction consisting of a mixture of four isomeric compounds. The active compounds were identified as (E)-9-hydroxyoctadec-10-enoic acid (1), (E)-10-hydroxyoctadec-8-enoic acid (2), (E)-11-hydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid (3) and (E)-12-hydroxyoctadec-10-enoic acid (4) by NMR, IR and mass spectral data. The structures were confirmed by comparison of the NMR and MS data with those of authentic samples of 1?4 obtained by unambiguous syntheses. Synthesized hydroxy acids 1?4 and related compounds were assessed for algicidal activity against C. antiqua and it was found that all of 1?4 had high activity (>80% mortality at 24 h) at a concentration of 20 μg/mL. A structure?activity relationship study using 11 related compounds revealed that the presence of the hydroxyl group is important for the activity and the double bond may be replaced with a triple bond
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