956 research outputs found

    The Effect of Outliers on Consumer Choice

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    This research investigates the effects of an extreme value (outlier) on a consumer’s reference price, and ultimately, the consumer’s choice. In a controlled experiment two hundred Bryant University students were presented with a choice task to select a cell phone plan from a set of plans described by price and six other features. Some choice sets contained a moderate outlier, an extreme outlier, or both a moderate and extreme outlier. Students who saw any of the outliers expected to pay an average of $4.40 more and ultimately chose a higher priced plan. However, there was no significant difference between reference price change or plan choice and the type of outlier seen. In addition, even students who recognized that the outlier was an inferior choice were still influenced by its presence in the choice set. The results of the study display two major outcomes useful to marketers. First, consumers will be willing to pay more for a product or will choose a product that costs more, if they see any type of outlier when making a choice. Second, irrelevant information is encoded, processed and used in decision making even when consumers recognize that it should not be used

    Environmental effects on early life stages of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax )

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    Recruitment of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) has steadily declined over the last few decades, possibly due to the construction of physical impediments to migration and increases in anthropogenic pollution. In order to elucidate environmental parameters influencing early life stages of anadromous fish, both laboratory and field studies were conducted. The effects of abiotic factors, including dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, salinity, nitrate, and phosphate, on hatch and survival of larval and juvenile American shad and rainbow smelt were examined in laboratory studies. Field studies on shad emigration were conducted in the Exeter River, and studies on smelt egg viability were conducted in the Winnicut and Squamscott Rivers. Extremely low DO saturation (20%, 1.74 mg I-1) was found to be detrimental to shad larvae, and all levels at and below 80% (6.94 mg I-1) caused a reduction in egg viability. Low pH (4) reduced egg and larval viability. Larval survival decreased with increased salinity, but egg hatch was unaffected by salinities up to 30 ppt. Nitrates and phosphates had no effect on eggs or larvae

    Effects of bottom-up versus top-down cueing on conjunction search in 3-month old infants

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    Previous research with infants have suggested that they are fully capable of performing a feature search in a manner nearly identical to adults (Adler & Orprecio, 2006), but are developmentally immature in localizing a target in a conjunction search (Fuda & Adler, 2012). An explanation for the difference in infants performance between feature and conjunction searches was attributed to Wolfe's (1989) Guided Search model of visual search, in which feature searches are thought to rely mainly on bottom-up attentional resources to localize a target, whereas conjunction searches are theorized to require both bottom-up and top-down attentional resources. Because infants have been shown to perform a feature search like that of adults but have been shown not to be able to perform a conjunction search in a similar manner, the current study attempted to show that bottom up attentional mechanisms develop before top-down mechanisms. To this end, 3-month-old infants were presented with two types of cues prior to a conjunction search array that ·will provide them with prior bottom-up or top-down information that might facilitate their performance in a conjunction search task. The bottom-up cue consisted of four rectangular frames indicating where the possible location of the target will be, while the top-down cue consisted of the flashing what the target will be in the center of the array. Infant saccadic eye movement latencies were recorded for three different set sizes of conjunction search arrays (5, 8, & 10) when the target was either present or absent. When the target was present, the eye movement latency that localized the target was measured, while when the target was absent the first eye movement latency was measured. Results showed that the top-down cue, but not the bottom-up cue, facilitated the exhibition of a more adult-like conjunction search function in which latencies increased with increasing set sizes. More specifically, the bottom-up cue resulted in relatively flat search functions for both the target-present and target-absent trials. In contrast, the top-down cue results showed that in the second half of all infant trials, target-present latencies increased with increasing set sizes, while target-absent latencies decreased with increasing set sizes. These results show that infants are developmentally mature in their bottom-up processing, but immature in their top-down processing abilities, and as such the top-down cue provided the facilitation that they needed in order to localize a target in a conjunction search. The current study is the first of its kind to show that 3-month-old infants' top-down processing mechanisms are developmentally immature compared to their bottom-up mechanisms in visual search tasks

    The Rotation Average in Lightcone Time-Ordered Perturbation Theory

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    We present a rotation average of the two-body scattering amplitude in the lightcone time(Ď„\tau)-ordered perturbation theory. Using a rotation average procedure, we show that the contribution of individual time-ordered diagram can be quantified in a Lorentz invariant way. The number of time-ordered diagrams can also be reduced by half if the masses of two bodies are same. In the numerical example of Ď•3\phi^{3} theory, we find that the higher Fock-state contribution is quite small in the lightcone quantization.Comment: 25 pages, REVTeX, epsf.sty, 69 eps file
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