1,621 research outputs found

    Physical Activity and Survival After Prostate Cancer

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    AbstractBackgroundDespite the high global prevalence of prostate cancer (PCa), few epidemiologic studies have assessed physical activity in relation to PCa survival.ObjectiveTo evaluate different types, intensities, and timing of physical activity relative to PCa survival.Design, setting, and participantsA prospective study was conducted in Alberta, Canada, in a cohort of 830 stage II–IV incident PCa cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2000 with follow-up to 2014 (up to 17 yr). Prediagnosis lifetime activity was self-reported at diagnosis. Postdiagnosis activity was self-reported up to three times during follow-up.Outcome measurements and statistical analysisCox proportional hazards models related physical activity to all-cause and PCa-specific deaths and to first recurrence/progression of PCa.Results and limitationsA total of 458 deaths, 170 PCa-specific deaths, and, after first follow-up, 239 first recurrences/progressions occurred. Postdiagnosis total activity (>119 vs ≤42 metabolic equivalent [MET]-hours/week per year) was associated with a significantly lower all-cause mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42–0.79; p value for trend <0.01). Postdiagnosis recreational activity (>26 vs ≤4 MET-hours/week per year) was associated with a significantly lower PCa-specific mortality risk (HR: 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35–0.90; p value for trend = 0.01). Sustained recreational activity before and after diagnosis (>18–20 vs <7–8 MET-hours/week per year) was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49–0.88). Limitations included generalisability to healthier cases and an observational study design.ConclusionsThese findings support emerging recommendations to increase physical activity after the diagnosis of PCa and would inform a future exercise intervention trial examining PCa outcomes.Patient summaryIn a 17-yr prostate cancer (PCa) survival study, men who survived at least 2 yr who were more physically active postdiagnosis or performed more recreational physical activity before and after diagnosis survived longer. Recreational physical activity after diagnosis was associated with a lower risk of PCa death

    The Influence of Energetic Factors on Biomarkers of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

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    Strong and consistent evidence exists that physical activity reduces breast cancer risk by 10-25 %, and several proposed biologic mechanisms have now been investigated in randomized, controlled, exercise intervention trials. Leading hypothesized mechanisms relating to postmenopausal breast cancer include adiposity, endogenous sex hormones, insulin resistance, and chronic low-grade inflammation. In addition, other pathways are emerging as potentially important, including those involving oxidative stress and telomere length, global DNA hypomethylation, immune function, and vitamin D exposure. Recent exercise trials in overweight/obese postmenopausal women implicate weight loss as a mechanism whereby exercise induces favorable changes in circulating estradiol levels and other biomarkers as well. Still it is plausible that some exercise-induced biomarker changes do not require loss of body fat, whereas others depend on abdominal fat loss. We highlight the latest findings from randomized, controlled trials of healthy postmenopausal women, relating exercise to proposed biomarkers for postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    Physical Activity, Heart Rate, Metabolic Profile, and Estradiol in Premenopausal Women

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    Purpose: To study whether physical inactive women with a tendency to develop metabolic syndrome have high levels of 17[beta]-estradiol (E2) of importance for breast cancer risk. Methods: Two hundred and four healthy women of reproductive age were assessed for self-reported leisure-time physical activity (LPA), resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), anthropometry, and serum glucose, lipids, and insulin [Norwegian Energy Balance and Breast Cancer Aspect (EBBA) study]. E2 was measured in daily saliva samples throughout an entire menstrual cycle. A clustered metabolic risk score [z metabolic syndrome (zMS); total cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, insulin resistance, total fat tissue, BP, and triglycerides] was defined. Linear regression and linear mixed models were used, and confounding factors were tested. Results: Physically active women had lower fat percentage (Ptrend = 0.003) and HRs (Ptrend = 0.003) than sedentary women. We estimated an increase in E2 of 1.27 pmol[middle dot]L-1 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.06-2.47] for each 11.7 beats[middle dot]min-1 (1 SD) increase in HR, and this corresponds to the 7% change in mean concentration of E2 for the total group. Associations with E2 were also found for fat tissue, total cholesterol-HDL-C ratio, insulin resistance, and triglycerides. A dose-response relationship was observed among the three levels of LPA and HR and zMS (Ptrend = 0.03 for LPA; Ptrend = 0.004 for HR). Women in the highest tertile of the clustered metabolic risk score had average salivary E2profiles that were markedly higher, throughout the cycle, than those of the other groups, with a cycle peak-day difference in E2 of 22-28%. Conclusion: LPA and HR were associated with metabolic risk score, and this score was associated with daily level of E2, pointing to important biologic mechanisms operating between a sedentary lifestyle and an increased breast cancer risk.AnthropologyHuman Evolutionary Biolog

    O otimismo e o bem-estar subjetivo ajudam no enfrentamento da COVID-19?

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    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has affected the whole world, bringing uncertainty and changes in people's lives, including in their emotional aspects. The main aim of this study was to understand, in the light of Positive Psychology, which are the roles of positive and adaptive internal resources for coping with the situation, highlighting the optimism and subjective well-being constructs as auxiliaries in this process. For that a cross-sectional study with a correlational design was carried out. The survey was conducted via internet, with a sample of 433 people, using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Affects Scale and LOT-R. Statistical regression analyses, correlations, t-test and ANOVA were performed. As a result, it was confirmed that optimism and the components of well-being are significantly related, with a strong magnitude and that there is a predictive power of optimism with the components of well-being, and family income on positive affect and satisfaction with life. COVID-19 coping variables showed data variance in relation to the components of subjective well-being and optimism.La pandemia por el virus SARS-CoV-2 ha afectado al mundo entero, trayendo incertidumbres y cambios en la vida de las personas, incluso en sus aspectos emocionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender, a la luz de la psicología positiva, cuáles son los recursos internos positivos y adaptativos para el afrontamiento de esta situación, donde se destacan los constructos optimismo y bienestar subjetivo como auxiliares en ese proceso. Para esto se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, con diseño correlacional y análisis transversal. La encuesta se realizó vía internet, con una muestra de 433 personas, utilizando un cuestionario sociodemográfico, la Escala de Satisfacción con la Vida, Escala de Afecto y LOT-R. Se realizaron análisis estadísticos de regresión, correlación, pruebas t y ANOVA. Como resultado, se confirmó que el optimismo y los componentes del bienestar están significativamente relacionados, con una fuerte magnitud y que existe un poder predictivo del optimismo con los componentes de bienestar e ingreso familiar sobre el afecto positivo y satisfacción con la vida. Las variables de afrontamiento al COVID-19 presentaron variación de datos en relación a los componentes de bienestar subjetivo y optimismo.A pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 tem afetado o mundo inteiro, trazendo incertezas e mudanças na vida das pessoas, inclusive em seus aspectos emocionais. O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender, à luz da psicologia positiva, quais são os recursos internos positivos e adaptativos para o enfrentamento da situação, destacando os construtos otimismo e bem-estar subjetivo como auxiliares nesse processo. Para tanto realizou-se estudo quantitativo, com delineamento correlacional e coleta transversal. A pesquisa foi realizada via internet, com uma amostra de 433 pessoas, utilizando-se um questionário sociodemográfico, a Escala de Satisfação com a Vida, Escala de Afetos e LOT-R. Foram realizadas análises estatísticas de regressão, correlação, teste t e ANOVA. Como resultado, confirmou-se que o otimismo e os componentes do bem-estar estão relacionados de maneira significativa, com magnitude forte e que existe um poder preditivo de otimismo com os componentes de bem-estar e renda familiar sobre afetos positivos e satisfação com a vida. As variáveis de enfrentamento da COVID-19 apresentaram variação de dados em relação aos componentes de bem-estar subjetivo e otimismo

    Anthropometric obesity indices, body fat percentage, and grip strength in young adults with different physical activity levels

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    The purposes of this study were to determine whether moderately physically active (MPA) and highly physically active (HPA) male (n = 96, age = 22.5 ± 1.7 years) and female (n = 85, age = 21.3 ± 1.6 years) young adults differed in their anthropometric obesity indices (AOIs), body fat percentage (BF%), and muscular strength, and also to examine the associations between physical activity level (PAL) and the abovementioned variables. Participants were measured for body height and weight, BF%, waist and hip circumferences, and maximal isometric grip strength. According to their PAL, estimated by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, they were assigned to MPA and HPA subgroups. Regardless of gender, results indicated that participants in the MPA groups had significantly higher values of body weight, waist and hip circumference, BF%, and BMI than participants in the HPA groups. No significant differences were found between physical activity groups in terms of grip strength. The AOIs and BF% were found to be significantly and negatively correlated with the PAL in both genders. In conclusion, the findings of the study suggest that high habitual physical activity is associated with lower adiposity markers. However, the differences in the hand grip strength of the contrasting activity groups were negligible. © 2019 by the authors

    Hours spent and energy expended in physical activity domains: Results from The Tomorrow Project cohort in Alberta, Canada

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Knowledge of adult activity patterns across domains of physical activity is essential for the planning of population-based strategies that will increase overall energy expenditure and reduce the risk of obesity and related chronic diseases. We describe domain-specific hours of activity and energy expended among participants in a prospective cohort in Alberta, Canada.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The <it>Past Year Total Physical Activity Questionnaire </it>was completed by 15,591 <it>Tomorrow Project</it><sup>® </sup>participants, between 2001 and 2005 detailing physical activity type, duration, frequency and intensity. Domain-specific hours of activity and activity-related energy expenditure, expressed as a percent of total energy expenditure (TEE) (Mean (SD); Median (IQR)) are reported across <it>inactive </it>(<1.4), <it>low active </it>(1.4 to 1.59), <it>active </it>(1.6 to 1.89) and <it>very active </it>(≥ 1.9) Physical Activity Level (PAL = TEE:REE) categories.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In <it>very active </it>women and amongst all men except those classified as <it>inactive</it>, activity-related energy expenditure comprised primarily occupational activity. Amongst <it>inactive </it>men and women in <it>active, low active </it>and <it>inactive </it>groups, activity-related energy expenditure from household activity was comparable to, or exceeded that for occupational activity. Leisure-time activity-related energy expenditure decreased with decreasing PAL categories; however, even amongst the most active men and women it accounted for less than 10 percent of TEE. When stratified by employment status, leisure-time activity-related energy expenditure was greatest for retired men [mean (SD): 10.8 (8.5) percent of TEE], compared with those who were fully employed, employed part-time or not employed. Transportation-related activity was negligible across all categories of PAL and employment status.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>For the <it>inactive </it>portion of this population, active non-leisure activities, specifically in the transportation and occupational domains, need to be considered for inclusion in daily routines as a means of increasing population-wide activity levels. Environmental and policy changes to promote active transport and workplace initiatives could increase overall daily energy expenditure through reducing prolonged sitting time.</p

    Case–control study of lifetime total physical activity and endometrial cancer risk

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    A population-based case–control study of physical activity and endometrial cancer risk was conducted in Alberta between 2002 and 2006. Incident, histologically confirmed cases of endometrial cancer (n = 542) were frequency age-matched to controls (n = 1,032). The Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure occupational, household, and recreational activity levels. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. Total lifetime physical activity reduced endometrial cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] for >129 vs. <82 MET-h/week/year = 0.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.63, 1.18). By type of activity, the risks were significantly decreased for greater recreational activity (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.87), but not for household activity (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.58) and/or occupational activity (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.20) when comparing the highest to lowest quartiles. For activity performed at different biologically defined life periods, some indication of reduced risks with activity done between menarche and full-term pregnancy and after menarche was observed. When examining the activity by intensity of activity (i.e., light <3, moderate 3–6, and vigorous >6 METs), light activity slightly decreased endometrial cancer risk (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.97) but no association with moderate or vigorous intensity activity was found. Endometrial cancer risk was increased with sedentary occupational activity by 28% (95 CI%: 0.89, 1.83) for >11.3 h/week/year versus ≤2.4 h/week/year or by 11% for every 5 h/week/year spent in sedentary behavior. This study provides evidence for a decreased risk between lifetime physical activity and endometrial cancer risk and a possible increased risk associated with sedentary behavior

    Development and testing of a past year measure of sedentary behavior: the SIT-Q

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    Abstract Background Most sedentary behavior measures focus on occupational or leisure-time sitting. Our aim was to develop a comprehensive measure of adult sedentary behavior and establish its measurement properties. Method The SIT-Q was developed through expert review (n = 7), cognitive interviewing (n = 11) and pilot testing (n = 34). A convenience sample of 82 adults from Calgary, Alberta, Canada, participated in the measurement property study. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) comparing two administrations of the SIT-Q conducted one month apart. Convergent validity was established using Spearman’s rho, by comparing the SIT-Q estimates of sedentary behaviour with values derived from a 7-Day Activity Diary. Results The SIT-Q exhibited good face validity and acceptability during pilot testing. Within the measurement property study, the ICCs for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.31 for leisure-time computer use to 0.86 for occupational sitting. Total daily sitting demonstrated substantial correlation (ICC = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.78). In terms of convergent validity, correlations varied from 0.19 for sitting during meals to 0.76 for occupational sitting. For total daily sitting, estimates derived from the SIT-Q and 7 Day Activity Diaries were moderately correlated (ρ = 0.53, p < 0.01). Conclusion The SIT-Q has acceptable measurement properties for use in epidemiologic studies.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/109519/1/12889_2013_Article_7017.pd
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