14,219 research outputs found

    The example of the Nigerian savanna

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    In Nigeria terrace agriculture can mainly be found in the so called "Middle Belt Economy" as FORDE (1946)1 coined this type which lies between the grain economy of males in the north and tuber cultivation of females in the south. The people - lacking a hierarchically social and territorial organisation - are called acephalous or segmentary societies. From the geographical point of view the Middle Belt is seen as a zone of transition. Because of the variability of the climate (sometimes it is too wet for grains, sometimes too dry for tubers) a strategy of mixed cropping enables the farmers to overcome these hazards. Their strategy can be seen in the frame of the game theory. A low population density and a lack of sufficient accessibility limited the innovation of cash crops at that time. The papers on the Tangale-Waja Region will reveal manifold facets of the culture and agriculture. In a first step we learn by the research of J. Heinrich that the natural environment is - from the genetic point of view - a prerequisite for the establishing of terraces, but it is still today an important provision to the modern farmers in their resettlement areas

    Summary and evaluation

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    The geographical analysis of the Savannah Zones of north-eastern Nigeria revealed a basic insight on the differentiated development at the meso-regional level: The northern districts had a much lower population increase than the average. It was already arid land before the dramatic reduction of precipitation since the late 1960s. The quality of the soil for farming is rather poor despite specific minerals which give grass during the very short growing season a higher nutritional value than further south. Through studies at the local level, it became evident that on one side this is an area of out-migration of the local population but on the other side we have to register the influx of migrants from the even more dryer northern districts including Niger Republic. The rate of urbanisation in Nigeria increased rapidly from 15 to 36 %. Northern capitals like Kano and Maiduguri multiplied their number of inhabitants seven times but were overtaken by Gombe’s growth. In any case they are centres of social and cultural change as the preliminary findings of H. BALZEREK concerning the boom-town Gombe revealed. But social tensions seem to be inevitable as religious movements not only in big towns like Kano but even in Gombe were already analysed by WATTS (1993, 61). The bearer/ carriers of this movement are landless people who did not migrate to new land in the country side, they are hoping for new jobs in an urban environment. The social structure has changed since the time of the old Hausa towns, but their reliance on surplus of labour force appears to have continued

    The historical and recent evolution in the Sudanic and Sub-Sudanic Savannah of NE-Nigeria: geographical, linguistic and anthropological aspects

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    The search for persistent elements in nature and culture, which comprises language as a constitutive part, is a prerequisite for the definition of any change which is the aim of our common project. When analysing the process of transformation by a number of disciplines we expect to discover significant features of this alteration and the forces dominating it. The current highly complex present linguistic situation in the western and south-western fringe of the Chad Basin will be reconstructed from the historical migrations undertaken by the various linguistic groups from Lake Chad (mainly Chadic languages) to their present settlements. The six authors, the linguists Dr. Dimitr Ibriszimov, Dr. Doris Löhr, Christopher Mtaku, the ethno-musicologist Dr. Raimund Vogels, and the historian Ibrahim Maina Waziri integrated the results of their studies into one paper towards a systemic approach by tracing back the common roots of the languages, the customs and the music of those peoples and give an outline of their tradition concerning their movements. A basic dual model of migration will be put forward

    Trap-Nest Design for Small Trap-nesting Hymenoptera

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    (excerpt) Many solitary bees and wasps construct brood cells in pre-existing natural cavities such as beetle borings or in excavations of pithy stems and twigs like Sambucus and Juglans. Artificial nesting materials are also acceptable and provide a convenient approach to study nest architecture, nesting activity, provisions and parasites. Arti- ficial nesting materials have included bamboo, glass tubes, plastic straws, cuttings of twigs and stems, and trap-nests. However, use of many of these materials have significant drawbacks

    Influence of Tree Species on Frequency of Trap-Nest Use by \u3ci\u3ePassaloecus\u3c/i\u3e Species (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae)

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    Habitat selection by Passaloecus spp. based upon tree species used as stations for artificial nesting sites were studied. Data suggest that Passaloecus areolatus preferred Juglans and that P. cuspidatus preferred Pinus
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