705 research outputs found

    A replicon RNA vaccine can induce durable protective immunity from SARS-CoV-2 in nonhuman primates after neutralizing antibodies have waned.

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    The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic prompted rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines. Although several vaccines have received emergency approval through various public health agencies, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues. Emergent variants of concern, waning immunity in the vaccinated, evidence that vaccines may not prevent transmission and inequity in vaccine distribution have driven continued development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 to address these public health needs. In this report, we evaluated a novel self-amplifying replicon RNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in a pigtail macaque model of COVID-19 disease. We found that this vaccine elicited strong binding and neutralizing antibody responses against homologous virus. We also observed broad binding antibody against heterologous contemporary and ancestral strains, but neutralizing antibody responses were primarily targeted to the vaccine-homologous strain. While binding antibody responses were sustained, neutralizing antibody waned to undetectable levels in some animals after six months but were rapidly recalled and conferred protection from disease when the animals were challenged 7 months after vaccination as evident by reduced viral replication and pathology in the lower respiratory tract, reduced viral shedding in the nasal cavity and lower concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. Cumulatively, our data demonstrate in pigtail macaques that a self-amplifying replicon RNA vaccine can elicit durable and protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, these data provide evidence that this vaccine can provide durable protective efficacy and reduce viral shedding even after neutralizing antibody responses have waned to undetectable levels

    Correction: Epidemiology and outcomes of early-onset AKI in COVID-19-related ARDS in comparison with non-COVID-19-related ARDS: insights from two prospective global cohort studies (Critical Care, (2023), 27, 1, (3), 10.1186/s13054-022-04294-5)

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    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors identified that the collaborating authors part of the collaborating author group CCCC Consortium was missing. The collaborating author group is available and included as Additional file 1 in this article

    Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory 2021

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    Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) is a leading research and engineering facility operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. MVCO has been collecting ocean and atmospheric data at 3 sites on and near Martha's Vineyard since 2001. A meteorological mast (met mast) on South Beach in Edgartown, MA has collected atmospheric data since May 31 2001. An Air Sea Interaction Tower (ASIT) has been collecting atmospheric and subsurface oceanic data since August 5, 2004. A seafloor node (12m node) has been collecting oceanic data from the seafloor since June 14, 2001. This dataset encompasses the core data (wind speed and direction, air pressure, temperature and relative humidity, water temperature and salinity, and wave data) that has been collected during this period. To learn more about the facility and see additional data collected during short term deployments, visit the MVCO Website (https://mvco.whoi.edu/)

    Worldwide Diagnostic Reference Levels for Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: Findings From INCAPS

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    Objectives: This study sought to establish worldwide and regional diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and achievable administered activities (AAAs) for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Background: Reference levels serve as radiation dose benchmarks to compare individual laboratories against aggregated data, helping to identify sites in greatest need of dose reduction interventions. DRLs for SPECT MPI have previously been derived from national or regional registries. To date there have been no multiregional reports of DRLs for SPECT MPI from a single standardized dataset. Methods: Data were submitted voluntarily to the INCAPS (International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study), a cross-sectional, multinational registry of MPI protocols. A total of 7,103 studies were included. DRLs and AAAs were calculated by protocol for each world region and for aggregated worldwide data. Results: The aggregated worldwide DRLs for rest-stress or stress-rest studies employing technetium Tc 99m–labeled radiopharmaceuticals were 11.2 mCi (first dose) and 32.0 mCi (second dose) for 1-day protocols, and 23.0 mCi (first dose) and 24.0 mCi (second dose) for multiday protocols. Corresponding AAAs were 10.1 mCi (first dose) and 28.0 mCi (second dose) for 1-day protocols, and 17.8 mCi (first dose) and 18.7 mCi (second dose) for multiday protocols. For stress-only technetium Tc 99m studies, the worldwide DRL and AAA were 18.0 mCi and 12.5 mCi, respectively. Stress-first imaging was used in 26% to 92% of regional studies except in North America where it was used in just 7% of cases. Significant differences in DRLs and AAAs were observed between regions. Conclusions: This study reports reference levels for SPECT MPI for each major world region from one of the largest international registries of clinical MPI studies. Regional DRLs may be useful in establishing or revising guidelines or simply comparing individual laboratory protocols to regional trends. Organizations should continue to focus on establishing standardized reporting methods to improve the validity and comparability of regional DRLs

    Worldwide Variation in the Use of Nuclear Cardiology Camera Technology, Reconstruction Software, and Imaging Protocols

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    Objectives: This study sought to describe worldwide variations in the use of myocardial perfusion imaging hardware, software, and imaging protocols and their impact on radiation effective dose (ED). Background: Concerns about long-term effects of ionizing radiation have prompted efforts to identify strategies for dose optimization in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Studies have increasingly shown opportunities for dose reduction using newer technologies and optimized protocols. Methods: Data were submitted voluntarily to the INCAPS (International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study) registry, a multinational, cross-sectional study comprising 7,911 imaging studies from 308 labs in 65 countries. The study compared regional use of camera technologies, advanced post-processing software, and protocol characteristics and analyzed the influence of each factor on ED. Results: Cadmium-zinc-telluride and positron emission tomography (PET) cameras were used in 10% (regional range 0% to 26%) and 6% (regional range 0% to 17%) of studies worldwide. Attenuation correction was used in 26% of cases (range 10% to 57%), and advanced post-processing software was used in 38% of cases (range 26% to 64%). Stress-first single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging comprised nearly 20% of cases from all world regions, except North America, where it was used in just 7% of cases. Factors associated with lower ED and odds ratio for achieving radiation dose ≤9 mSv included use of cadmium-zinc-telluride, PET, advanced post-processing software, and stress- or rest-only imaging. Overall, 39% of all studies (97% PET and 35% SPECT) were ≤9 mSv, while just 6% of all studies (32% PET and 4% SPECT) achieved a dose ≤3 mSv. Conclusions: Newer-technology cameras, advanced software, and stress-only protocols were associated with reduced ED, but worldwide adoption of these practices was generally low and varied significantly between regions. The implementation of dose-optimizing technologies and protocols offers an opportunity to reduce patient radiation exposure across all world regions

    Self or other: Directors’ attitudes towards policy initiatives for external board evaluation

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    Recurrent crises in corporate governance have board practice and created policy pressure to assess the effectiveness of boards. Since the 1990s boards have faced calls to undertake regular, formal evaluation. Since 2010, the UK Corporate Governance Code has urged large corporations to engage outside parties to conduct them at least every three years, a move that other jurisdictions have copied. Despite this policy importance, little research has been conducted into processes or outcomes of board evaluation. This study explores the attitudes of directors on evaluation, whether self-administered or facilitated by others. We find acceptance of the principle but reservations about the value and even honesty in questionnaire-based approaches. We find scepticism about, but also acknowledgement of, the benefits of using outside facilitators, especially for their objectivity and because their interviewing elicits insights into board dynamics. As this practice expands beyond listed companies to non-listed ones, charities, and even governance branches of government, our findings point to a need to professionalise outside facilitation

    Tau PET imaging with 18F-PI-2620 in aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

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    PurposeIn vivo measurement of the spatial distribution of neurofibrillary tangle pathology is critical for early diagnosis and disease monitoring of Alzheimer's disease (AD).MethodsForty-nine participants were scanned with 18F-PI-2620 PET to examine the distribution of this novel PET ligand throughout the course of AD: 36 older healthy controls (HC) (age range 61 to 86), 11 beta-amyloid+ (Aβ+) participants with cognitive impairment (CI; clinical diagnosis of either mild cognitive impairment or AD dementia, age range 57 to 86), and 2 participants with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, age 66 and 78). Group differences in brain regions relevant in AD (medial temporal lobe, posterior cingulate cortex, and lateral parietal cortex) were examined using standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) normalized to the inferior gray matter of the cerebellum.ResultsSUVRs in target regions were relatively stable 60 to 90 min post-injection, with the exception of very high binders who continued to show increases over time. Robust elevations in 18F-PI-2620 were observed between HC and Aβ+ CI across all AD regions. Within the HC group, older age was associated with subtle elevations in target regions. Mildly elevated focal uptake was observed in the anterior temporal pole in one svPPA patient.ConclusionPreliminary results suggest strong differences in the medial temporal lobe and cortical regions known to be impacted in AD using 18F-PI-2620 in patients along the AD trajectory. This work confirms that 18F-PI-2620 holds promise as a tool to visualize tau aggregations in AD

    The Species-Specific Acquisition and Diversification of a K1-like Family of Killer Toxins in Budding Yeasts of the Saccharomycotina.

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    Killer toxins are extracellular antifungal proteins that are produced by a wide variety of fungi, including Saccharomyces yeasts. Although many Saccharomyces killer toxins have been previously identified, their evolutionary origins remain uncertain given that many of these genes have been mobilized by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. A survey of yeasts from the Saccharomyces genus has identified a novel killer toxin with a unique spectrum of activity produced by Saccharomyces paradoxus. The expression of this killer toxin is associated with the presence of a dsRNA totivirus and a satellite dsRNA. Genetic sequencing of the satellite dsRNA confirmed that it encodes a killer toxin with homology to the canonical ionophoric K1 toxin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has been named K1-like (K1L). Genomic homologs of K1L were identified in six non-Saccharomyces yeast species of the Saccharomycotina subphylum, predominantly in subtelomeric regions of the genome. When ectopically expressed in S. cerevisiae from cloned cDNAs, both K1L and its homologs can inhibit the growth of competing yeast species, confirming the discovery of a family of biologically active K1-like killer toxins. The sporadic distribution of these genes supports their acquisition by horizontal gene transfer followed by diversification. The phylogenetic relationship between K1L and its genomic homologs suggests a common ancestry and gene flow via dsRNAs and DNAs across taxonomic divisions. This appears to enable the acquisition of a diverse arsenal of killer toxins by different yeast species for potential use in niche competition

    Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory

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    Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) is a leading research and engineering facility operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. MVCO has been collecting ocean and atmospheric data at 3 sites on and near Martha's Vineyard since 2001. A meteorological mast (met mast) on South Beach in Edgartown, MA has collected atmospheric data since May 31 2001. An Air Sea Interaction Tower (ASIT) has been collecting atmospheric and subsurface oceanic data since August 5, 2004. A seafloor node (12m node) has been collecting oceanic data from the seafloor since June 14, 2001. This dataset encompasses the core data (wind speed and direction, air pressure, temperature and relative humidity, water temperature and salinity, and wave data) that has been collected during this period. To learn more about the facility and see additional data collected during short term deployments, visit the MVCO Website (https://mvco.whoi.edu/)

    Yarning as an Interview Method for Non-Indigenous Clinicians and Health Researchers

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    In this article, we discuss the origins, epistemology, and forms of Yarning as derived from the literature, and its use in research and clinical contexts. Drawing on three Yarns, the article addresses the extent to which non-Indigenous researchers and clinicians rightfully use and adapt this information-gathering method, or alternatively, may engage in yet another form of what can be described as post-colonialist behavior. Furthermore, we argue that while non-Indigenous researchers can use Yarning as an interview technique, this does not necessarily mean they engage in Indigenous methodologies. As we note, respectfully interviewing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples can be a challenge for non-Indigenous researchers. The difficulties go beyond differences in language to reveal radically different expectations about how relationships shape information giving. Yarning as a method for addressing cross-cultural clinical and research differences goes some way to ameliorating these barriers, but also highlights the post-colonial tensions
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