216 research outputs found

    Pedagogical Perspectives of Interdisciplinary Teaching and Research: An Energy System Modelling Outlook in Relation to Energy Informatics

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    The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss pedagogical frameworks and approaches to developing, delivering, and evaluating a new interdisciplinary course within the domain of energy informatics at both Master’s and PhD levels. This study is needed because many papers on sustainable energy engineering education concentrate on course content but provide very little information on the pedagogical methods employed to deliver that content. The proposed new course is called “smart energy and power systems modelling” and is aimed at discussing how mathematical optimization, in the context of computer science, can contribute to more effectively managing smart energy and power systems. Different pedagogical frameworks are discussed and adapted for the specific domain of energy informatics. An ASSURE model coupled with Bloom’s taxonomy is presented for the design of the course and identification of learning objectives; self-regulated learning strategies are discussed to enhance the learning process; a novel model called GPD (Gaussian Progression of Difficulty) for lecture planning was proposed; a teaching-research nexus is discussed for the course planning and enhancement. Adopting qualitative analyses and an inductive approach, this paper offers a thorough reflection on the strengths and weaknesses of the new course, together with improvement possibilities based on fieldwork and direct experience with the students and colleagues. Opportunities and challenges of interdisciplinary teaching are presented in light of real-world experience, with a particular focus on the interaction between mathematics and computer science to study the specific application of energy and power systems

    Intersecting near-optimal spaces: European power systems with more resilience to weather variability

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    We suggest a new methodology for designing robust energy systems. For this, we investigate so-called near-optimal solutions to energy system optimisation models; solutions whose objective values deviate only marginally from the optimum. Using a refined method for obtaining explicit geometric descriptions of these near-optimal feasible spaces, we find designs that are as robust as possible to perturbations. This contributes to the ongoing debate on how to define and work with robustness in energy systems modelling. We apply our methods in an investigation using multiple decades of weather data. For the first time, we run a capacity expansion model of the European power system (one node per country) with a three-hourly temporal resolution and 41 years of weather data. While an optimisation with 41 weather years is at the limits of computational feasibility, we use the near-optimal feasible spaces of single years to gain an understanding of the design space over the full time period. Specifically, we intersect all near-optimal feasible spaces for the individual years in order to get designs that are likely to be feasible over the entire time period. We find significant potential for investment flexibility, and verify the feasibility of these designs by simulating the resulting dispatch problem with four decades of weather data. They are characterised by a shift towards more onshore wind and solar power, while emitting more than 50% less CO2 than a cost-optimal solution over that period. Our work builds on recent developments in the field, including techniques such as Modelling to Generate Alternatives (MGA) and Modelling All Alternatives (MAA), and provides new insights into the geometry of near-optimal feasible spaces and the importance of multi-decade weather variability for energy systems design. We also provide an effective way of working with a multi-decade time frame in a highly parallelised manner. Our implementation is open-sourced, adaptable and is based on PyPSA-Eur

    The heat modulated infinite dimensional Heston model and its numerical approximation

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    The HEat modulated Infinite DImensional Heston (HEIDIH) model and its numerical approximation are introduced and analyzed. This model falls into the general framework of infinite dimensional Heston stochastic volatility models of (F.E. Benth, I.C. Simonsen '18), introduced for the pricing of forward contracts. The HEIDIH model consists of a one-dimensional stochastic advection equation coupled with a stochastic volatility process, defined as a Cholesky-type decomposition of the tensor product of a Hilbert-space valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, the mild solution to the stochastic heat equation on the real half-line. The advection and heat equations are driven by independent space-time Gaussian processes which are white in time and colored in space, with the latter covariance structure expressed by two different kernels. First, a class of weight-stationary kernels are given, under which regularity results for the HEIDIH model in fractional Sobolev spaces are formulated. In particular, the class includes weighted Mat\'ern kernels. Second, numerical approximation of the model is considered. An error decomposition formula, pointwise in space and time, for a finite-difference scheme is proven. For a special case, essentially sharp convergence rates are obtained when this is combined with a fully discrete finite element approximation of the stochastic heat equation. The analysis takes into account a localization error, a pointwise-in-space finite element discretization error and an error stemming from the noise being sampled pointwise in space. The rates obtained in the analysis are higher than what would be obtained using a standard Sobolev embedding technique. Numerical simulations illustrate the results.Comment: 35 pages, 7 figure

    A feasible central limit theorem for realised covariation of SPDEs in the context of functional data

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    This article establishes an asymptotic theory for volatility estimation in an infinite-dimensional setting. We consider mild solutions of semilinear stochastic partial differential equations and derive a stable central limit theorem for the semigroup adjusted realised covariation (SARCV), which is a consistent estimator of the integrated volatility and a generalisation of the realised quadratic covariation to Hilbert spaces. Moreover, we introduce semigroup adjusted multipower variations (SAMPV) and establish their weak law of large numbers; using SAMPV, we construct a consistent estimator of the asymptotic covariance of the mixed-Gaussian limiting process appearing in the central limit theorem for the SARCV, resulting in a feasible asymptotic theory. Finally, we outline how our results can be applied even if observations are only available on a discrete space-time grid

    Stochastic integrals and Gelfand integration in Fréchet spaces

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    We provide a detailed analysis of the Gelfand integral on Fréchet spaces, showing among other things a Vitali theorem, dominated convergence and a Fubini result. Furthermore, the Gelfand integral commutes with linear operators. The Skorohod integral is conveniently expressed in terms of a Gelfand integral on Hida distribution space, which forms our prime motivation and example. We extend several results of Skorohod integrals to a general class of pathwise Gelfand integrals. For example, we provide generalizations of the Hida–Malliavin derivative and extend the integration-by-parts formula in Malliavin Calculus. A Fubini-result is also shown, based on the commutative property of Gelfand integrals with linear operators. Finally, our studies give the motivation for two existing definitions of stochastic Volterra integration in Hida space

    Stochastic Volterra integral equations and a class of first-order stochastic partial differential equations

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    We investigate stochastic Volterra equations and their limiting laws. The stochastic Volterra equations we consider are driven by a Hilbert space valued Lévy noise and integration kernels may have non-linear dependence on the current state of the process. Our method is based on an embedding into a Hilbert space of functions which allows to represent the solution of the Volterra equation as the boundary value of a solution to a stochastic partial differential equation. We first gather abstract results and give more detailed conditions in more specific function spaces

    A weak law of large numbers for realised covariation in a Hilbert space setting

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    This article generalises the concept of realised covariation to Hilbert-space-valued stochastic processes. More precisely, based on high-frequency functional data, we construct an estimator of the trace-class operator-valued integrated volatility process arising in general mild solutions of Hilbert space-valued stochastic evolution equations in the sense of Da Prato and Zabczyk (2014). We prove a weak law of large numbers for this estimator, where the convergence is uniform on compacts in probability with respect to the Hilbert–Schmidt norm. In addition, we determine convergence rates for common stochastic volatility models in Hilbert spaces

    Dynamic probabilistic forecasting with uncertainty

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    In this paper, we introduce a dynamical model for the time evolution of probability density functions incorporating uncertainty in the parameters. The uncertainty follows stochastic processes, thereby defining a new class of stochastic processes with values in the space of probability densities. The purpose is to quantify uncertainty that can be used for probabilistic forecasting. Starting from a set of traded prices of equity indices, we do some empirical studies. We apply our dynamic probabilistic forecasting to option pricing, where our proposed notion of model uncertainty reduces to uncertainty on future volatility. A distribution of option prices follows, reflecting the uncertainty on the distribution of the underlying prices. We associate measures of model uncertainty of prices in the sense of Cont

    Metatimes, random measures and cylindrical random variables

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    Metatimes constitute an extension of time-change to general measurable spaces, defined as mappings between two σ-algebras. Equipping the image σ-algebra of a metatime with a measure and defining the composition measure given by the metatime on the domain σ-algebra, we identify metatimes with bounded linear operators between spaces of square integrable functions. We also analyse the possibility to define a metatime from a given bounded linear operator between Hilbert spaces, which we show is possible for invertible operators. Next we establish a link between orthogonal random measures and cylindrical random variables following a classical construction. This enables us to view metatime-changed orthogonal random measures as cylindrical random variables composed with linear operators, where the linear operators are induced by metatimes. In the paper we also provide several results on the basic properties of metatimes as well as some applications towards trawl processes