137 research outputs found

    Radiology report generation using transformers conditioned with non-imaging data

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    Medical image interpretation is central to most clinical applications such as disease diagnosis, treatment planning, and prognostication. In clinical practice, radiologists examine medical images (e.g. chest x-rays, computed tomography images, etc.) and manually compile their findings into reports, which can be a time-consuming process. Automated approaches to radiology report generation, therefore, can reduce radiologist workload and improve efficiency in the clinical pathway. While recent deep-learning approaches for automated report generation from medical images have seen some success, most studies have relied on image-derived features alone, ignoring non-imaging patient data. Although a few studies have included the word-level contexts along with the image, the use of patient demographics is still unexplored. On the other hand, prior approaches to this task commonly use encoder-decoder frameworks that consist of a convolution vision model followed by a recurrent language model. Although recurrent-based text generators have achieved noteworthy results, they had the drawback of having a limited reference window and identifying only one part of the image while generating the next word. This paper proposes a novel multi-modal transformer network that integrates chest x-ray (CXR) images and associated patient demographic information, to synthesise patient-specific radiology reports. The proposed network uses a convolutional neural network (CNN) to extract visual features from CXRs and a transformer-based encoder-decoder network that combines the visual features with semantic text embeddings of patient demographic information, to synthesise full-text radiology reports. The designed network not only alleviates the limitations of the recurrent models but also improves the encoding and generative processes by including more context in the network. Data from two public databases were used to train and evaluate the proposed approach. CXRs and reports were extracted from the MIMIC-CXR database and combined with corresponding patients’ data (gender, age, and ethnicity) from MIMIC-IV. Based on the evaluation metrics used (BLEU 1-4 and BERTScore), including patient demographic information was found to improve the quality of reports generated using the proposed approach, relative to a baseline network trained using CXRs alone. The proposed approach shows potential for enhancing radiology report generation by leveraging rich patient metadata and combining semantic text embeddings derived thereof, with medical image-derived visual features

    Simultaneous Hip Implant Segmentation and Gruen Landmarks Detection

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    The assessment of implant status and complications of Total Hip Replacement (THR) relies mainly on the clinical evaluation of the X-ray images to analyse the implant and the surrounding rigid structures. Current clinical practise depends on the manual identification of important landmarks to define the implant boundary and to analyse many features in arthroplasty X-ray images, which is time-consuming and could be prone to human error. Semantic segmentation based on the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has demonstrated successful results in many medical segmentation tasks. However, these networks cannot define explicit properties that lead to inaccurate segmentation, especially with the limited size of image datasets. Our work integrates clinical knowledge with CNN to segment the implant and detect important features simultaneously. This is instrumental in the diagnosis of complications of arthroplasty, particularly for loose implant and implant-closed bone fractures, where the location of the fracture in relation to the implant must be accurately determined. In this work, we define the points of interest using Gruen zones that represent the interface of the implant with the surrounding bone to build a Statistical Shape Model (SSM). We propose a multitask CNN that combines regression of pose and shape parameters constructed from the SSM and semantic segmentation of the implant. This integrated approach has improved the estimation of implant shape, from 74% to 80% dice score, making segmentation realistic and allowing automatic detection of Gruen zones. To train and evaluate our method, we generated a dataset of annotated hip arthroplasty X-ray images that will be made available

    Quantitating age-related BMD textural variation from DXA region-free-analysis: a study of hip fracture prediction in three cohorts

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    The risk of osteoporotic fracture is inversely related to bone mineral density (BMD), but how spatial BMD pattern influences fracture risk remains incompletely understood. This study used a pixel-level spatiotemporal atlas of proximal femoral BMD in 13,338 white European women (age 20–97 years) to quantitate age-related texture variation in BMD maps and generate a “reference” map of bone aging. We introduce a new index, called Densitometric Bone Age (DBA), as the age at which an individual site-specific BMD map (the proximal femur is studied here) best matches the median aging trajectory at that site in terms of the root mean squared error (RMSE). The ability of DBA to predict incident hip fracture and hip fracture pattern over 5 years following baseline BMD was compared against conventional region-based BMD analysis in a subset of 11,899 women (age 45–97 years), for which follow-up fracture records exist. There were 208 subsequent incident hip fractures in the study populations (138 femoral necks [FNs], 52 trochanteric [TR], 18 sites unspecified). DBA had modestly better performance compared to the conventional FN-BMD, TR-BMD, and total hip (TOT)-BMD in identifying hip fractures measured as the area under the curve (AUC) using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis by 2% (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.5% to 3.5%), 3% (95% CI, 1.0% to 4.0%), and 1% (95% CI, 0.4% to 1.6%), respectively. Compared to FN-BMD T-score, DBA improved the ROC-AUC for predicting TR fractures by ~5% (95% CI, 1.1% to 9.8%) with similar performance in identifying FN fractures. Compared to TR-BMD T-score, DBA improved the ROC-AUC for the prediction of FN fractures by ~3% (95% CI, 1.1% to 4.9%), with similar performance in identifying TR fractures. Our findings suggest that DBA may provide a spatially sensitive measure of proximal femoral fragility that is not captured by FN-BMD or TR-BMD alone

    Radiomics-Based Assessment of Primary Sjögren's Syndrome from Salivary Gland Ultrasonography Images

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    Salivary gland ultrasonography (SGUS) has shown good potential in the diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). However, a series of international studies have reported needs for improvements of the existing pSS scoring procedures in terms of inter/intra observer reliability before being established as standardized diagnostic tools. The present study aims to solve this problem by employing radiomics features and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms to make the pSS scoring more objective and faster compared to human expert scoring. The assessment of AI algorithms was performed on a two-centric cohort, which included 600 SGUS images (150 patients) annotated using the original SGUS scoring system proposed in 1992 for pSS. For each image, we extracted 907 histogram-based and descriptive statistics features from segmented salivary glands. Optimal feature subsets were found using the genetic algorithm based wrapper approach. Among the considered algorithms (seven classifiers and five regressors), the best preforming was the multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier (κ = 0.7). The MLP over-performed average score achieved by the clinicians (κ = 0.67) by the considerable margin, whereas its reliability was on the level of human intra-observer variability (κ = 0.71). The presented findings indicate that the continuously increasing HarmonicSS cohort will enable further advancements in AI-based pSS scoring methods by SGUS. In turn, this may establish SGUS as an effective noninvasive pSS diagnostic tool, with the final goal to supplement current diagnostic tests. © 2013 IEEE

    Tissue microarray (TMA) use in post mortem neuropathology

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    Background Tissue microarrays (TMAs), where each block (and thus section) contains multiple tissue cores from multiple blocks potentially allow more efficient use of tissue, reagents and time in neuropathology. New Method The relationship between data from TMA cores and whole sections was investigated using ‘virtual’ TMA cores. This involved quantitative assessments of microglial pathology in white matter lesions and motor neuron disease, alongside qualitative TDP-43 inclusion status in motor neuron disease cases. Following this, a protocol was developed for TMA construction. Results For microglial pathology we found good concordance between virtual cores and whole sections for volume density using one 1.75 mm core (equivalent to a 2 mm core after accounting for peripheral tissue loss). More sophisticated microglial cell size and measures required two cores. Qualitative results of pTDP-43 pathology showed use of one 1.75 mm core gave a 100% sensitivity and specificity within grey matter, and 88.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity within white matter. A method of producing the TMAs was suitable for immunohistochemistry both manually and by autostainer, with the minimal core loss from the microscope slide. Comparison with Existing Methods TMAs have been used infrequently in post mortem neuropathology research. However, we believe TMAs give comparable tissue assessment results and can be constructed, sectioned and stained with relative ease. Conclusions We found TMAs could be used to assess both quantitative (microglial pathology) and qualitative pathology (TDP-43 proteinopathy) with greatly reduced quantities of tissue, time and reagents. These could be used for further work to improve data acquisition efficiency

    Iba-1-/CD68+ microglia are a prominent feature of age-associated deep subcortical white matter lesions.

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    Deep subcortical lesions (DSCL) of the brain, are present in ~60% of the ageing population, and are linked to cognitive decline and depression. DSCL are associated with demyelination, blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, and microgliosis. Microglia are the main immune cell of the brain. Under physiological conditions microglia have a ramified morphology, and react to pathology with a change to a more rounded morphology as well as showing protein expression alterations. This study builds on previous characterisations of DSCL and radiologically 'normal-appearing' white matter (NAWM) by performing a detailed characterisation of a range of microglial markers in addition to markers of vascular integrity. The Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) provided control white matter (WM), NAWM and DSCL human post mortem tissue for immunohistochemistry using microglial markers (Iba-1, CD68 and MHCII), a vascular basement membrane marker (collagen IV) and markers of BBB integrity (fibrinogen and aquaporin 4). The immunoreactive profile of CD68 increased in a stepwise manner from control WM to NAWM to DSCL. This correlated with a shift from small, ramified cells, to larger, more rounded microglia. While there was greater Iba-1 immunoreactivity in NAWM compared to controls, in DSCL, Iba-1 levels were reduced to control levels. A prominent feature of these DSCL was a population of Iba-1-/CD68+ microglia. There were increases in collagen IV, but no change in BBB integrity. Overall the study shows significant differences in the immunoreactive profile of microglial markers. Whether this is a cause or effect of lesion development remains to be elucidated. Identifying microglia subpopulations based on their morphology and molecular markers may ultimately help decipher their function and role in neurodegeneration. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that Iba-1 is not a pan-microglial marker, and that a combination of several microglial markers is required to fully characterise the microglial phenotype

    Highly integrated workflows for exploring cardiovascular conditions: Exemplars of precision medicine in Alzheimer's disease and aortic dissection

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    For precision medicine to be implemented through the lens of in silico technology, it is imperative that biophysical research workflows offer insight into treatments that are specific to a particular illness and to a particular subject. The boundaries of precision medicine can be extended using multiscale, biophysics-centred workflows that consider the fundamental underpinnings of the constituents of cells and tissues and their dynamic environments. Utilising numerical techniques that can capture the broad spectrum of biological flows within complex, deformable and permeable organs and tissues is of paramount importance when considering the core prerequisites of any state-of-the-art precision medicine pipeline. In this work, a succinct breakdown of two precision medicine pipelines developed within two Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) projects are given. The first workflow is targeted on the trajectory of Alzheimer's Disease, and caters for novel hypothesis testing through a multicompartmental poroelastic model which is integrated with a high throughput imaging workflow and subject-specific blood flow variability model. The second workflow gives rise to the patient specific exploration of Aortic Dissections via a multi-scale and compliant model, harnessing imaging, computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) and dynamic boundary conditions. Results relating to the first workflow include some core outputs of the multiporoelastic modelling framework, and the representation of peri-arterial swelling and peri-venous drainage solution fields. The latter solution fields were statistically analysed for a cohort of thirty-five subjects (stratified with respect to disease status, gender and activity level). The second workflow allowed for a better understanding of complex aortic dissection cases utilising both a rigid-wall model informed by minimal and clinically common datasets as well as a moving-wall model informed by rich datasets

    Diffusion MRI for assessment of bone quality; A review of findings in healthy aging and osteoporosis

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    Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is a growing imaging technique with the potential to provide biomarkers of tissue variation, such as cellular density, tissue anisotropy, and microvascular perfusion. However, the role of dMRI in characterizing different aspects of bone quality, especially in aging and osteoporosis, has not yet been fully established, particularly in clinical applications. The reason lies in the complications accompanied with implementation of dMRI in assessment of human bone structure, in terms of acquisition and quantification. Bone is a composite tissue comprising different elements, each contributing to the overall quality and functional competence of bone. As diffusion is a critical biophysical process in biological tissues, early changes of tissue microstructure and function can affect diffusive properties of the tissue. While there are multiple MRI methods to detect variations of individual properties of bone quality due to aging and osteoporosis, dMRI has potential to serve as a superior method for characterizing different aspects of bone quality within the same framework but with higher sensitivity to early alterations. This is mainly because several properties of the tissue including directionality and anisotropy of trabecular bone and cell density can be collected using only dMRI. In this review article, we first describe components of human bone that can be potentially detected by their diffusivity properties and contribute to variations in bone quality during aging and osteoporosis. Then we discuss considerations and challenges of dMRI in bone imaging, current status, and suggestions for development of dMRI in research studies and clinics to segregate different contributing components of bone quality in an integrated acquisition

    MATHICSE Technical Report : Improved hybrid/GPU algorithm for solving cardiac electro-physiology problems on Purkinje networks

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    The cardiac Purkinje fibres provide an important stimulus to the coordinated contraction of the heart. We present a numerical algorithm for the solution of electrophysiology problems on the Purkinje network that is efficient enough to be used on realistic networks with physiologically detailed membrane models. The algorithm is based on operator splitting and is provided with three different implementations: pure CPU, hybrid CPU/GPU, and pure GPU. Compared to our previous work based on the model of Vigmond et al., we modify the explicit gap junction term at network bifurcations in order to improve its mathematical consistency. Due to this improved consistency of the model, we are able to perform a convergence study against analytical solutions and verify that all three implementations produce equivalent convergence rates. Finally, we compare the efficiency of all three implementations on Purkinje networks of increasing spatial resolution using membrane models of increasing complexity. Both hybrid and pure-GPU implementations outperform the pure-CPU implementation, but their relative performance difference depends on the size of the Purkinje network and the complexity of the membrane model used. Copyright c 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
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