123 research outputs found

    Discrete Changes in Glucose Metabolism Define Aging

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    Aging is a physiological process in which multifactorial processes determine a progressive decline. Several alterations contribute to the aging process, including telomere shortening, oxidative stress, deregulated autophagy and epigenetic modifications. In some cases, these alterations are so linked with the aging process that it is possible predict the age of a person on the basis of the modification of one specific pathway, as proposed by Horwath and his aging clock based on DNA methylation. Because the energy metabolism changes are involved in the aging process, in this work, we propose a new aging clock based on the modifications of glucose catabolism. The biochemical analyses were performed on mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood, obtained from a healthy population with an age between 5 and 106 years. In particular, we have evaluated the oxidative phosphorylation function and efficiency, the ATP/AMP ratio, the lactate dehydrogenase activity and the malondialdehyde content. Further, based on these biochemical markers, we developed a machine learning-based mathematical model able to predict the age of an individual with a mean absolute error of approximately 9.7 years. This mathematical model represents a new non-invasive tool to evaluate and define the age of individuals and could be used to evaluate the effects of drugs or other treatments on the early aging or the rejuvenation

    Design and application of a novel PNA probe for the detection at single cell level of JAK2V617F mutation in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

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    BACKGROUND: Mutation(s) of the JAK2 gene (V617F) has been described in a significant proportion of Philadelphia negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) patients and its detection is now a cornerstone in the diagnostic algorithm. METHODS: We developed a novel assay based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) technology coupled to immuno-fluorescence microscopy (PNA-FISH) for the specific detection at a single cell level of JAK2-mutation thus improving both the diagnostic resolution and the study of clonal prevalence. RESULTS: Using this assay we found a percentage of mutated CD34+ cells ranging from 40% to 100% in Polycythemia Vera patients, from 15% to 80% in Essential Thrombocythemia and from 25% to 100% in Primary Myelofibrosis. This method allows to distinguish, with a high degree of specificity, at single cell level, between CD34+ progenitor stem cells harbouring the mutated or the wild type form of JAK2 in NPM patients. CONCLUSIONS: This method allows to identify multiple gene abnormalities which will be of paramount relevance to understand the pathophysiology and the evolution of any type of cancer

    Impact of length of cryopreservation and origin of cord blood units on hematologic recovery following cord blood transplantation

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    As the history of the cord blood banking system has lengthened, the number of cord blood units (CBUs) cryopreserved for years has increased. The global expansion of cord blood banking resulted in active international exchange of CBUs. To determine whether long-term cryopreservation and international shipment of CBUs affect the quality of the units and outcome after transplantation, we retrospectively analyzed the quality of 95 CBUs and the hematologic recovery of 127 patients with hematological malignancy following single-unit cord blood transplantation. Of the 127 CBUs used to transplant, 42 units were cryopreserved for long periods (5–11.8 years), and 44 units were shipped from distant countries. We found that length of cryopreservation and origin of CBUs did not affect the ratio of viable total-nucleated cells after thawing. Also, neutrophil engraftment was not affected by long-term cryopreservation (> 5 years) or origin (from distant countries), (hazard ratio, 0.91 and 1.2; P=0.65 and 0.41; respectively). The number of CD34+ cells before freezing (> 1.4 cells/kg recipient) was the only factor that enhanced neutrophil engraftment (hazard ratio, 1.8; P<0.01). This suggests that length of cryopreservation and origin need not be prioritized over the CD34+ cell dose when selecting CBUs

    The Wilms&apos; tumor (WT1) gene expression correlates with the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score in patients with myelofibrosis and it is a marker of response to therapy

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    The Wilms tumor gene WT1 is a useful marker of clonal hematopoiesis and it has been shown to be a good marker of residual disease and it reflects the response to therapy. Although myelofibrosis is characterized by mutations of JAK2 and calreticulin (CALR), these mutations are not useful to monitor response to therapy. In this study we demonstrated that in patients affected by myelofibrosis WT1 correlates with the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score at diagnosis. Furthermore WT1 is a good marker of response to JAK2 inhibitors especially for patients without blasts and for patients who develop anemia or thrombocytopenia not for progression but as therapy related toxicity. Finally, WT1 transcript reduction can mirror a benefit of therapy on the disease burden. This study demonstrated that WT1 is a good marker for monitoring the response to therapy in patients affected by myelofibrosis

    Intrabone Transplant of Cord Blood Stem Cells Establishes a Local Engraftment Store: A Functional PET/FDG Study

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    Background. Despite advancements in comprehension of molecular mechanisms governing bone marrow (BM) homing of hematopoietic stem cells, cord blood transplant (CBT) suffers from a slow rate of hematopoietic recovery. Intrabone (IB) injection has been proposed as a method able to improve speed of BM engraftment with respect to conventional IV protocols. However, the mechanisms underlying this benefit are largely unknown. Aim. To verify whether IB-CBT determines a local engraftment able to predict the reconstitution of recipient hematopoiesis. Design and Methods. Twenty-one patients with hematologic malignancies received IB injection into both iliac crests of 3.2±0.68 * 107/kg cord blood cells. One month following IB-CBT, PET-CT imaging was performed. Maximal standardized uptake values (SUVs) were assessed in BM of both iliac crests and in all lumbar vertebrae. Results. Maximal SUV within iliac crests was higher than in lumbar vertebrae (4.1±1.7 versus 3.2±0.7, resp., P=0.01). However, metabolic activity in these two different BM districts was significantly correlated (r=0.7, P<0.001). Moreover, FDG uptake values within the injection site closely predicted platelet recovery 100 days after IB-CBT (r=0.72, P<0.01). Conclusions. The metabolic activity of injected BM predicts the subsequent rate of hematopoietic recovery after IB-CBT, suggesting a pivotal role of the local engraftment in the reconstitution of recipient hematopoiesis

    A novel assay to detect calreticulin mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms

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    The myeloproliferative neoplasms are chronic myeloid cancers divided in Philadelphia positive (Ph+), chronic myeloid leukemia, or negative: polycythemia vera (PV) essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Most Ph negative cases have an activating JAK2 or MPL mutation. Recently, somatic mutations in the calreticulin gene (CALR) were detected in 56–88% of JAK2/MPL-negative patients affected by ET or PMF. The most frequent mutations in CARL gene are type-1 and 2. Currently, CALR mutations are evaluated by sanger sequencing. The evaluation of CARL mutations increases the diagnostic accuracy in patients without other molecular markers and could represent a new therapeutic target for molecular drugs. We developed a novel detection assay in order to identify type-1 and 2 CALR mutations by PNA directed PCR clamping. Seventy-five patients affected by myeloproliferative neoplasms and seven controls were examined by direct DNA sequencing and by PNA directed PCR clamping. The assay resulted to be more sensitive, specific and cheaper than sanger sequencing and it could be applied even in laboratory not equipped for more sophisticated analysis. Interestingly, we report here a case carrying both type 1 and type2 mutations in CALR gene
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