540 research outputs found

    The next steps in improving the outcomes of advanced ovarian cancer

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    Worldwide ovarian cancer affects over 200,000 women per year. Overall survival rates are poor due to two predominate reasons. First, the majority of patients present with advanced disease creating significant difficulty with effecting disease eradication. Second, acquisition of chemotherapy resistance results in untreatable progressive disease. Advances in treatment of advanced ovarian cancer involve a spectrum of interventions including improvements in frontline debulking surgery and combination chemotherapy. Anti-angiogenic factors have been shown to have activity in frontline and recurrent disease while novel chemotherapeutic agents and targeted treatments are in development particularly for disease that is resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy. These developments aim to improve the progression-free and overall survival of women with advanced ovarian cancer

    Restoring awareness: a review of rehabilitation in anosognosia for hemiplegia

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    Disturbances in body awareness offer important insights into neurocognitive processes involved in the construction of the bodily self. This review will focus on a specific disorder of awareness, namely, anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP), or the denial of motor deficits contralateral to a brain lesion. Recently some progress has been made towards the management and rehabilitation of AHP, however to date no evidence-based treatment exists. Firstly, recent research on AHP will be reviewed, with the aim of providing an overview of the etiology, clinical presentation and assessment of the syndrome, as well as the major neurological and neuropsychological explanations. This article will then focus on recent advances in the management and rehabilitation of AHP, using a case study example of intervention-based (i.e. video replay) motor awareness recovery (Fotopoulou, Rudd, Holmes & Kopelman, 2009). Finally, a dynamic theoretical model of the multifaceted nature of anosognosia, using a predictive coding framework, will be proposed and future directions for research will also be discussed

    INVESTIGATING SCHOOL PLACEMENT AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR REFLECTION FOR PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS

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    This paper focuses on documenting the reflections of undergraduate students in the early childhood education programme with regard to their experience with school placement in kindergarten. Their views on the importance of school placement, the implementation of activities they design, the teaching process and the interactions developed in the classroom are studied. A review of responses indicates that most students can attribute the importance of their school placement to a number of factors related, firstly, to the acquisition of experience, but also to more complex factors relating to communication and the interaction of the students themselves with kindergarten children, as well as the link between academic knowledge and its practical application. At the same time, it is highlighted the fact that, through the process of reflection, the students are willing to revise some of their choices while planning and implementing educational activities. In conclusion, it appears that the study of student reflection is a complex “mechanism” which nevertheless appears to be quite significant in preparing future teachers and can contribute to improving the operational framework of practical work experience (school placement), with a direct impact on the feedback to the knowledge they are provided.  Article visualizations

    Estimating Photometric Redshifts for X-ray sources in the X-ATLAS field, using machine-learning techniques

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    We present photometric redshifts for 1,031 X-ray sources in the X-ATLAS field, using the machine learning technique TPZ (Carrasco Kind & Brunner 2013). X-ATLAS covers 7.1 deg2 observed with the XMM-Newton within the Science Demonstration Phase (SDP) of the H-ATLAS field, making it one of the largest contiguous areas of the sky with both XMMNewton and Herschel coverage. All of the sources have available SDSS photometry while 810 have additionally mid-IR and/or near-IR photometry. A spectroscopic sample of 5,157 sources primarily in the XMM/XXL field, but also from several X-ray surveys and the SDSS DR13 redshift catalogue, is used for the training of the algorithm. Our analysis reveals that the algorithm performs best when the sources are split, based on their optical morphology, into point-like and extended sources. Optical photometry alone is not enough for the estimation of accurate photometric redshifts, but the results greatly improve when, at least, mid-IR photometry is added in the training process. In particular, our measurements show that the estimated photometric redshifts for the X-ray sources of the training sample, have a normalized absolute median deviation, n_mad=0.06, and the percentage of outliers, eta=10-14 percent, depending on whether the sources are extended or point-like. Our final catalogue contains photometric redshifts for 933 out of the 1,031 X-ray sources with a median redshift of 0.9.Comment: 10 pages, 13 figures, A&A accepte

    Partners' Empathy Increases Pain Ratings: Effects of Perceived Empathy and Attachment Style on Pain Report and Display

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    Pain can be influenced by its social context. We aimed to examine under controlled experimental conditions how empathy from a partner and personal attachment style affect pain report, tolerance, and facial expressions of pain. Fifty-four participants, divided into secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment style groups, underwent a cold pressor task with their partners present. We manipulated how much empathy the participants perceived that their partners had for them. We observed a significant main effect of perceived empathy on pain report, with greater pain reported in the high perceived empathy condition. No such effects were found for pain tolerance or facial display. We also found a significant interaction of empathy with attachment style group, with the avoidant group reporting and displaying less pain than the secure and the anxious groups in the high perceived empathy condition. No such findings were observed in the low empathy condition. These results suggest that empathy from one's partner may influence pain report beyond behavioral reactions. In addition, the amount of pain report and expression that people show in high empathy conditions depends on their attachment style. Perspective: Believing that one's partner feels high empathy for one's pain may lead individuals to rate the intensity of pain as higher. Individual differences in attachment style moderate this empathy effect

    Finding counterparts for All-sky X-ray surveys with Nway: a Bayesian algorithm for cross-matching multiple catalogues

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    We release the AllWISE counterparts and Gaia matches to 106,573 and 17,665 X-ray sources detected in the ROSAT 2RXS and XMMSL2 surveys with |b|>15. These are the brightest X-ray sources in the sky, but their position uncertainties and the sparse multi-wavelength coverage until now rendered the identification of their counterparts a demanding task with uncertain results. New all-sky multi-wavelength surveys of sufficient depth, like AllWISE and Gaia, and a new Bayesian statistics based algorithm, NWAY, allow us, for the first time, to provide reliable counterpart associations. NWAY extends previous distance and sky density based association methods and, using one or more priors (e.g., colors, magnitudes), weights the probability that sources from two or more catalogues are simultaneously associated on the basis of their observable characteristics. Here, counterparts have been determined using a WISE color-magnitude prior. A reference sample of 4524 XMM/Chandra and Swift X-ray sources demonstrates a reliability of ~ 94.7% (2RXS) and 97.4% (XMMSL2). Combining our results with Chandra-COSMOS data, we propose a new separation between stars and AGN in the X-ray/WISE flux-magnitude plane, valid over six orders of magnitude. We also release the NWAY code and its user manual. NWAY was extensively tested with XMM-COSMOS data. Using two different sets of priors, we find an agreement of 96% and 99% with published Likelihood Ratio methods. Our results were achieved faster and without any follow-up visual inspection. With the advent of deep and wide area surveys in X-rays (e.g. SRG/eROSITA, Athena/WFI) and radio (ASKAP/EMU, LOFAR, APERTIF, etc.) NWAY will provide a powerful and reliable counterpart identification tool.Comment: MNRAS, Paper accepted for publication. Updated catalogs are available at www.mpe.mpg.de/XraySurveys/2RXS_XMMSL2 . NWAY available at https://github.com/JohannesBuchner/nwa

    Depersonalization disorder as a systematic downregulation of interoceptive signals

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    Depersonalisation disorder (DPD) is a psychopathological condition characterised by a feeling of detachment from one's own body and surrounding, and it is understood as emerging from the downregulation of interoceptive afferents. However, the precise mechanisms that drive this 'interoceptive silencing' are yet to be clarified. Here we present a computational and neurobiologically plausible model of DPD within the active inference framework. Specifically, we describe DPD as arising from disrupted interoceptive processing at higher levels of the cortical hierarchy where the interoceptive and exteroceptive streams are integrated. We simulated the behaviour of an agent subjected to a situation of high interoceptive activation despite the absence of a perceivable threat in the external environment. The simulation showed how a similar condition, if perceived as inescapable, would result in a downregulation of interoceptive signals, whilst leaving the exteroceptive ones unaffected. Such interoceptive silencing would force the agent to over-rely on exteroceptive information and would ultimately lead to the DPD phenomenology. Finally, our simulation shows that repeated exposure to similar situations over time will lead the agent to increasingly disengage from bodily responses even in the face of a less triggering situation, explaining how a single episode of depersonalization can lead to chronic DPD

    Mentalizing the body: spatial and social cognition in anosognosia for hemiplegia

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    Following right-hemisphere damage, a specific disorder of motor awareness can occur called anosognosia for hemiplegia, i.e. the denial of motor deficits contralateral to a brain lesion. The study of anosognosia can offer unique insights into the neurocognitive basis of awareness. Typically, however, awareness is assessed as a first person judgement and the ability of patients to think about their bodies in more ‘objective’ (third person) terms is not directly assessed. This may be important as right-hemisphere spatial abilities may underlie our ability to take third person perspectives. This possibility was assessed for the first time in the present study. We investigated third person perspective taking using both visuospatial and verbal tasks in right-hemisphere stroke patients with anosognosia ( n = 15) and without anosognosia ( n = 15), as well as neurologically healthy control subjects ( n = 15). The anosognosic group performed worse than both control groups when having to perform the tasks from a third versus a first person perspective. Individual analysis further revealed a classical dissociation between most anosognosic patients and control subjects in mental (but not visuospatial) third person perspective taking abilities. Finally, the severity of unawareness in anosognosia patients was correlated to greater impairments in such third person, mental perspective taking abilities (but not visuospatial perspective taking). In voxel-based lesion mapping we also identified the lesion sites linked with such deficits, including some brain areas previously associated with inhibition, perspective taking and mentalizing, such as the inferior and middle frontal gyri, as well as the supramarginal and superior temporal gyri. These results suggest that neurocognitive deficits in mental perspective taking may contribute to anosognosia and provide novel insights regarding the relation between self-awareness and social cognition
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