41,503 research outputs found

    Seasonal changes in growth of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) off Oregon and Washington and concurrent changes in the spacing of scale circuli

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    In this study we present new information on seasonal variation in absolute growth rate in length of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the ocean off Oregon and Washington, and relate these changes in growth rate to concurrent changes in the spacing of scale circuli. Average spacing of scale circuli and average rate of circulus formation were significantly and positively correlated with average growth rate among groups of juvenile and maturing coho salmon and thus could provide estimates of growth between age groups and seasons. Regression analyses indicated that the spacing of circuli was proportional to the scale growth rate raised to the 0.4−0.6 power. Seasonal changes in the spacing of scale circuli reflected seasonal changes in apparent growth rates of fish. Spacing of circuli at the scale margin was greatest during the spring and early summer, decreased during the summer, and was lowest in winter or early spring. Changes over time in length of fish caught during research cruises indicated that the average growth rate of juvenile coho salmon between June and September was about 1.3 mm/d and then decreased during the fall and winter to about 0.6 mm/d. Average growth rate of maturing fish was about 2 mm/d between May and June, then decreased to about 1 mm/d between June and September. Average apparent growth rates of groups of maturing coded-wire−tagged coho salmon caught in the ocean hook-and-line fisheries also decreased between June and September. Our results indicate that seasonal change in the spacing of scale circuli is a useful indicator of seasonal change in growth rate of coho salmon in the ocean

    Ocean distribution of the American shad (Alosa sapidissima) along the Pacific coast of North America

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    We examined the incidental catches of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) taken during research cruises and in commercial and recreational landings along the Pacific coast of North America during over 30 years of sampling. Shad, an introduced species, was mainly found over the shallow continental shelf, and largest catches and highest frequency of occurrences were found north of central Oregon, along the coasts of Washington and Vancouver Island, and in California around San Francisco Bay. Migrations to the north off Washington and Vancouver were seen during spring to fall, but we found no evidence for large-scale seasonal migrations to the south during the fall or winter. The average weight of shad increased in deeper water. Sizes were also larger in early years of the study. Most were caught over a wide range of sea surface temperatures (11–17°C) and bottom temperatures (6.4–8.0°C). Abundance of shad on the continental shelf north of 44°N was highly correlated with counts of shad at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River in the same year. Counts were negatively related to average weights and also negatively correlated with the survival of hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), indicating that survival of shad is favored by warm ocean conditions. Examining the catch during research cruises and commercial and recreational landings, we concluded that American shad along the Pacific coast have adapted to the prevailing environmental conditions and undertake only moderate seasonal migrations compared with the long seasonal migrations of shad along the Atlantic coast of North America. We suggest that the large spawning populations in the Columbia River and San Francisco Bay areas explain most of the distributional features along the Pacific coast

    Distribution and Abundance of Juvenile Salmonids off Oregon and Washington, 1981-1985

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    This report is a summary of the results of 883 purse seine sets made for juvenile salmonids during 15 cruises off the coasts of Oregon and Washington during the springs and summers of 1981-1985. Juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) occurred most frequently, followed by chinook salmon (0. tshawytscha). The juveniles of these two species co-occurred more frequently than expected. Juvenile chum, pink and sockeye salmon (0. keta, O. gorbuscha, and O. nerka), steelhead (0. mykiss) and cutthroat trout (0. clarki clarki) were caught much less frequently and in lower numbers than coho or chinook salmon. We found no evidence of large schools ofjuvenile salmonids. A northerly movement of juvenile coho salmon wa~ suggested by decreased catches off Oregon and increased catches off Washington between early and late summer. Highest catch per set of juvenile coho salmon was usually found inshore of 37.2 km. Juvenile chinook salmon were usually found within 27.9 km of the coast. Juvenile salmonids were found over a broad range of surface salinities and temperatures. High catches of juvenile coho salmon occurred in both the low salinity waters of the Columbia River plume and in adjacent higher salinity waters. Preferences for specific salinities or temperatures were not obvious for any species, although catch rates of juvenile coho salmon were highest in years when chlorophyll content was also high. Based on expansions of fish with coded wire tags, we estimated that hatchery coho salmon smolts comprised 74%, on average, of the juvenile coho salmon catches. The remaining 26% were presumably wild fish or hatchery fish released as fingerlings. Hatchery coho salmon were caught roughly in proportion to the numbers released. However, hatchery fish from the Columbia River and private coastal facilities were caught at slightly higher rates while those from coastal Washington and public coastal Oregon hatcheries were caught at slightly lower rates than expected from the numbers released. No juvenile coho salmon with coded wire tags were caught that had originated from either California or Puget Sound hatcheries. (PDF file contains 88 pages.

    The Effects of Rotation on the Evolution of Rising Omega-loops in a Stratified Model Convection Zone

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    We present three-dimensional MHD simulations of buoyant magnetic flux tubes that rise through a stratified model convection zone in the presence of solar rotation. The equations of MHD are solved in the anelastic approximation, and the results are used to determine the effects of solar rotation on the dynamic evolution an Omega-loop. We find that the Coriolis force significantly suppresses the degree of fragmentation at the apex of the loop during its ascent toward the photosphere. If the initial axial field strength of the tube is reduced, then, in the absence of forces due to convective motions, the degree of apex fragmentation is also reduced. We show that the Coriolis force slows the rise of the tube, and induces a retrograde flow in both the magnetized and unmagnetized plasma of an emerging active region. Observationally, we predict that this flow will appear to originate at the leading polarity, and will terminate at the trailing polarity.Comment: 25 pages, 8 figures, ApJ in pres

    Inelastic neutron scattering signal from deconfined spinons in a fractionalized antiferromagnet

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    We calculate the contribution of deconfined spinons to inelastic neutron scattering (INS) in the fractionalized antiferromagnet (AF*), introduced elsewhere. We find that the presence of free spin-1/2 charge-less excitations leads to a continuum INS signal above the Neel gap. This signal is found above and in addition to the usual spin-1 magnon signal, which to lowest order is the same as in the more conventional confined antiferromagnet. We calculate the relative weights of these two signals and find that the spinons contribute to the longitudinal response, where the magnon signal is absent to lowest order. Possible higher-order effects of interactions between magnons and spinons in the AF* phase are also discussed.Comment: 9 page

    Observation of fine one-dimensionally disordered layers in silicon carbide

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    The improved resolution of synchrotron edge-topography is enabling thinner (less than 100 microns), silicon carbide crystals to be studied, and is providing a more detailed and wider database on polytype depth profiles. Fine long-period and one-dimensionally-disordered layers, 5-25 microns thick, can now be confidently resolved and are found to be very common features, often in association with high-defect density bands. These features are illustrated in this paper using three examples. A new long period polytype LPP (152H/456R) has been discovered and reported here for the first time

    Vortices and quasiparticles near the "superconductor-insulator" transition in thin films

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    We study the low temperature behavior of an amorphous superconducting film driven normal by a perpendicular magnetic field (B). For this purpose we introduce a new two-fluid formulation consisting of fermionized field induced vortices and electrically neutralized Bogoliubov quasiparticles (spinons) interacting via a long-ranged statistical interaction. This approach allows us to access a novel non-Fermi liquid phase which naturally interpolates between the low B superconductor and the high B normal metal. We discuss the transport, thermodynamic, and tunneling properties of the resulting "vortex metal" phase.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, references adde

    Intercomparison of numerical models of flaring coronal loops

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    The proposed Benchmark Problem consists of an infinitesimal magnetic flux tube containing a low-beta plasma. The field strength is assumed to be so large that the plasma can move only along the flux tube, whose shape remains invariant with time (i.e., the fluid motion is essentially one-dimensional). The flux tube cross section is taken to be constant over its entire length. In planar view the flux tube has a semi-circular shape, symmetric about its midpoint s = s sub max and intersecting the chromosphere-corona interface (CCI) perpendicularly at each foot point. The arc length from the loop apex to the CCI is 10,000 km. The flux tube extends an additional 2000 km below the CCI to include the chromosphere, which initially has a uniform temperature of 8000 K. The temperature at the top of the loop was fixed initially at 2 X 1 million K. The plasma is assumed to be a perfect gas (gamma = 5/3), consisting of pure hydrogen which is considered to be fully ionized at all temperatures. For simplicity, moreover, the electron and ion temperatures are taken to be everywhere equal at all times (corresponding to an artificially enhanced electron-ion collisional coupling). While there was more-or-less unanimous agreement as to certain global properties of the system behavior (peak temperature reached, thermal-wave time scales, etc.), no two groups could claim satisfactory accord when a more detailed comparison of solutions was attempted

    Concurrent Validity of the Face Valid Food Security Measure

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    Our objective was to assess the concurrent validity of the face valid food security categorical algorithm with Hawaii residents. We also hypothesized that there would be differences in food security status between ethnic groups. We used the 18 question indicators of the Core Food Security Module (CFSM) to develop the face valid food security measure. The “face valid” measure was created previously by this research team as a more valid food security measure in Hawaii. Findings compared the face valid categorical measure and the CFSM scale measure with various demographic, economic, dietary variables, and use of assistance programs. The sample included 1,603 Hawaii residents drawn from a statewide telephone survey and a survey of charitable food recipients. Statistical analysis included ANOVA, chi-square, and regression analysis of food security measures with related variables. In general, progressively deteriorating food security status resulted in concurrent decreases in vegetable intake, increased reliance on a cheap, high-fat, high-sodium noodle product, and increased reliance on resource augmentation behaviors. Factors such as a greater number of children, limited savings, and recent loss of a job were found to compromise food security status. WIC benefits, frequent use of a food pantry, and the presence of a senior adult in the household appeared protective. In this sample Asians, except for Filipinos, were more food secure; Hawaiians and Part-Hawaiians, and Samoans, were more likely to experience hunger. Findings were consistent with previous work and suggest that the face valid food security measure does exhibit concurrent validity.

    The Roton Fermi Liquid

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    We introduce and analyze a novel metallic phase of two-dimensional (2d) electrons, the Roton Fermi Liquid (RFL), which, in contrast to the Landau Fermi liquid, supports both gapless fermionic and bosonic quasiparticle excitations. The RFL is accessed using a re-formulation of 2d electrons consisting of fermionic quasiparticles and hc/2ehc/2e vortices interacting with a mutual long-ranged statistical interaction. In the presence of a strong vortex-antivortex (i.e. roton) hopping term, the RFL phase emerges as an exotic yet eminently tractable new quantum ground state. The RFL phase exhibits a ``Bose surface'' of gapless roton excitations describing transverse current fluctuations, has off-diagonal quasi-long-ranged order (ODQLRO) at zero temperature (T=0), but is not superconducting, having zero superfluid density and no Meissner effect. The electrical resistance {\it vanishes} as T0T \to 0 with a power of temperature (and frequency), R(T)TγR(T) \sim T^\gamma (with γ>1\gamma >1), independent of the impurity concentration. The RFL phase also has a full Fermi surface of quasiparticle excitations just as in a Landau Fermi liquid. Electrons can, however, scatter anomalously from rotonic "current fluctuations'' and "superconducting fluctuations'', leading to "hot" and "cold" spots. Fermionic quasiparticles dominate the Hall electrical transport. We also discuss instabilities of the RFL to a conventional Fermi liquid and a superconductor. Precisely {\it at} the instability into the Fermi liquid state, the exponent γ=1\gamma =1, so that R(T)TR(T) \sim T. Upon entering the superconducting state the anomalous quasiparticle scattering is strongly suppressed. We discuss how the RFL phenomenology might apply to the cuprates.Comment: 43 page
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