18 research outputs found

    Patterns in recent and Holocene pollen accumulation rates across Europe - the Pollen Monitoring Programme Database as a tool for vegetation reconstruction

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    The collection of modern, spatially extensive pollen data is important for the interpretation of fossil pollen assemblages and the reconstruction of past vegetation communities in space and time. Modern datasets are readily available for percentage data but lacking for pollen accumulation rates (PARs). Filling this gap has been the motivation of the pollen monitoring network, whose contributors monitored pollen deposition in modified Tauber traps for several years or decades across Europe. Here we present this monitoring dataset consisting of 351 trap locations with a total of 2742 annual samples covering the period from 1981 to 2017. This dataset shows that total PAR is influenced by forest cover and climate parameters, which determine pollen productivity and correlate with latitude. Treeless vegetation produced PAR values of at least 140 grains cm(-2) yr(-1). Tree PAR increased by at least 400 grains cm(-2) yr(-1) with each 10% increase in forest cover. Pollen traps situated beyond 200 km of the distribution of a given tree species still collect occasional pollen grains of that species. The threshold of this long-distance transport differs for individual species and is generally below 60 grains cm(-2) yr(-1). Comparisons between modern and fossil PAR from the same regions show similar values. For temperate taxa, modern analogues for fossil PARs are generally found downslope or southward of the fossil sites. While we do not find modern situations comparable to fossil PAR values of some taxa (e.g. Corylus), CO2 fertilization and land use may cause high modern PARs that are not documented in the fossil record. The modern data are now publicly available in the Neotoma Paleoecology Database and aid interpretations of fossil PAR data

    Patterns in recent and Holocene pollen accumulation rates across Europe - the Pollen Monitoring Programme Database as a tool for vegetation reconstruction

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    The collection of modern, spatially extensive pollen data is important for the interpretation of fossil pollen assemblages and the reconstruction of past vegetation communities in space and time. Modern datasets are readily available for percentage data but lacking for pollen accumulation rates (PARs). Filling this gap has been the motivation of the pollen monitoring network, whose contributors monitored pollen deposition in modified Tauber traps for several years or decades across Europe. Here we present this monitoring dataset consisting of 351 trap locations with a total of 2742 annual samples covering the period from 1981 to 2017. This dataset shows that total PAR is influenced by forest cover and climate parameters, which determine pollen productivity and correlate with latitude. Treeless vegetation produced PAR values of at least 140 grains cm−2 yr−1. Tree PAR increased by at least 400 grains cm−2 yr−1 with each 10 % increase in forest cover. Pollen traps situated beyond 200 km of the distribution of a given tree species still collect occasional pollen grains of that species. The threshold of this long-distance transport differs for individual species and is generally below 60 grains cm−2 yr−1. Comparisons between modern and fossil PAR from the same regions show similar values. For temperate taxa, modern analogues for fossil PARs are generally found downslope or southward of the fossil sites. While we do not find modern situations comparable to fossil PAR values of some taxa (e.g. Corylus), CO2 fertilization and land use may cause high modern PARs that are not documented in the fossil record. The modern data are now publicly available in the Neotoma Paleoecology Database and aid interpretations of fossil PAR data.publishedVersio

    Development of forests in the former heathland landscape: changes in the habitat quality, structure of undergrowth, syntaxonomy of phytocoenoses and modern pollen deposition

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    This study presents changes in the quality of habitats between 1926 and 2013 in permanent units of forest division restored in the 19th century as a result of afforestation carried out in the landscape dominated by heaths and xerothermic grasslands. The research was conducted in the Zaborski Landscape Park, located in the north-western part of the Tuchola Forest − one of the largest forest complexes in Poland. Changes in the habitat quality were determined based on data included in seven consecutive inventory books. Assessment according to the 5-point quality scale was performed on the basis of average height reached by a pine forest stand of a certain age occurring in particular forest subsections. It has been found that the quality of habitat increased over 87 years by two classes, on average from IV to II. The number of species, especially deciduous trees and shrubs listed in inventory books, was an additional parameter expressing the habitat quality. The extent of habitat changes was also determined based on the types of syntaxa, which are represented by relevés forming the time series and made more or less at the same sites by different authors in 1961, 2002 and 2013, i.e. over the period of 52 years. Temporal changes in the structure of phytocoenoses and their syntaxonomic affiliation were determined using the classification and ordination methods. It has been found that in the study area and within the studied time horizon, there was a recession of dry coniferous forest which developed towards mesic (fresh) pine forests. Whereas within the fresh coniferous forest, there were transitions from the poor cladonietosum variant to the mesotrophic typicum variant, or from the typicum variant towards the fertile variant with a large contribution of Fagus sylvatica in the main tree layer and undergrowth. A change in the forest type from a pine monoculture to mixed pine-beech forest was also reflected in the spectrum of modern pollen deposition collected after annual exposures of Tauber traps. In this case, the observations were performed by the same research team over 15 years

    Contribution of selected lichens species of the genus Cladonia on the heathlands in Toruń (N, Poland)

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    The study presents data on the distribution of selected species of lichens – Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad. , C. rangiferina (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg. and C. uncialis (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg. in Toruń and along its southern boundary - on a heathland on the military training ground. A comparison was carried out of the research findings on the occurrence of the analysed species against variable habitat conditions over a period of nearly 40 years. The occurrence of Cladonia uncialis was most frequently observed within the city, in the habitats of Calluna vulgaris . A tendency was shown of selected lichen species to spread in the investigated area

    The analysis of the Corylus, Alnus and Betula pollen seasons in Toruń in 2014 and 2016

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    The paper presents the results of the research on the pollen seasons of hazel (Corylus), alder (Alnus) and birch (Betula) in 2014 and 2016. The samples were collected gravimetrically at weekly intervals. The deposition values were converted into the pollen grains concentration in 1 m3 of air. The analysis of the pollen seasons was conducted based on the properties of the seasons: beginning, end, season duration, annual totals of pollen and maximum concentrations. The courses of the both compared pollen seasons differed. In 2014, the tree pollen season began two weeks later than in 2016, a year that was marked by high annual totals of pollen counts and maximum pollen concentrations of alder and birch. Only hazel showed higher values in 2014

    Modern pollen data from Tuchola Forest

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    This paper compares pollen spectra derived from modified Tauber traps and moss samples adjacent to pollen traps from four sites different in type of vegetation and openness of the landscape in Tuchola Forest. The length of the pollen deposition period covered by an individual moss sample was a matter of discussion, as well as accumulated values of pollen grains in green gametophytes (A) and basal part of moss (B). Compared to pollen traps, mosses tend to accumulate more Pinus grains. The investigated moss samples (A+B) usually contain pollen from a period between one and two years. Pine, spruce, oak and beech pollen deposited more pollen almost always in the subsample A

    Biomass of Scots pine-silver birch tree stand 25 years after afforestation of former agricultural land

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    : In 2O15, the structure of a forest stand growing on former agricultural land in subunit 277n of the Przymuszewo Forest Division (Regional Directorate of State Forests RDSF in Toruń) was described. The study area was afforested in 199O - mostly with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and several seedlings of the European beech – after many years of agricultural cultivation of grain and potato crops. Characteristics of the forest stand comprised the following parameters: species composition and species diversity, density of individual components, the average tree diameter at breast height (DBH), and the height and aboveground biomass of trees divided into individual species. The species structure, dendrometric characteristics and spatial dis- tribution of trees studied in 2015 were compared with the situation assessed in 2000. Based on DBH and height values, as well as the use of dendrometric tables and basic wood density for tree species, the above- ground biomass and total biomass of trees with a minimum diameter of 7 cm were calculated. The aboveground and total biomass for trees with DBH less than 7 cm was calculated on the basis of density and weight of trees according to the classification into species and height classes. The aboveground and total biomass of the whole tree stand, including spontaneous non-native and invasive Padus serotina Ehrh., was compared with the standing biomass of agricultural areas in the Tuchola Forest region as well as with other Scots pine-silver birch plantations on former agricultural lands described in ecological literature. The paper presents also the differences in assessments of aboveground pine biomass at the study site obtained when using conver- sion factors established during direct measurements carried out in forests of the Przymuszewo Forest Division and conversion factors applied during inventories conducted in Poland according to the IPCC recommendations for international reporting submitted to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, FAO and UNFCC

    New localities and habitat preferences of common milkweed Asclepias syriaca L. in Toruń (Central Poland)

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    The paper presents the location and general description of habitats and plant communities with common milkweed occurring within the city limits of Toruń. The data set comprised new localities of this species as well as those where Asclepias syriaca has been observed for several years but the sites have not been described in the ecological literature. Relevés made at these sites were compared with those described by Puchałka et al. (2013) from three sites of Asclepias syriaca in Toruń. A larger set of new sites included in the analysis allows for a more accurate description of the impact exerted by some ecological factors, e.g. afforestation, on the growth of the studied species. As evidenced by the new sites of Asclepias syriaca found recently in Toruń and the surrounding area, it is necessary to monitor the dynamics of the population and to undertake the research on the impact of common milkweed on plant communities

    Heathlands and associated communities in Kujawy and Pomerania: management, treatment and conservation

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    Heathlands are strictly dependent on human activity. Cessation of land use, consisting in livestock grazing, burning and mowing, triggers off the succession processes, which quickly bring transformations of grasslands and heaths into fringe, thicket and forest communities. In the conditions of modern Poland, heaths generally develop over small areas in the landscape of pine forests, less frequently mixed forests. Those are forest glades, unsuccessful forest plantations, division lines, roadsides, railway embankments etc. Nowadays, larger areas of the aforementioned heaths occur only on military training grounds or in the nature reserves, frequently formed on former military areas where active protection must be applied. This book presents heterogeneity of heaths occurring in Poland and the problems related to their protection, reconstruction and management necessary to maintain their effective ecosystem services. The first chapter deals with two main types of heathlands occurring in Poland, i.e. wet and dry heathlands. The second chapter describes some of the important heathlands, mostly nature reserves and Natura 2000 conservation sites in the northern part of the Kujawy region, in the vicinity of Toruń located on the left bank of the Vistula River, as well as the central and eastern parts of Pomerania. Also other types of ecosystems and plant communities occurring in the vicinity of heathlands are presented, for which active conservation is also required. The types and the range of treatments applied by institutions governing these areas are described for each site. Most of the presented heaths grow on the former military training grounds which are under the State Forests administration. The project “Environmental restoration of degraded lands and former military training grounds used by State Forest” (implemented by local forest divisions under Priority Axis II of the Infrastructure and Environment Operational EU Programme) restores the heathlands and associated plant communities, making them available to the public for recreational, tourist, educational and research purposes, and as resources for processing and industry. Active conservation implemented on the other heaths described in this book, which often involves reduction of water runoff, is implemented by people working in environmental protection services in close cooperation with people of science studying the history and the present time of heaths, based on which they build scenarios of their development from the past to the future. We hope that this book will serve as a guide for field sessions and the basis for discussions during the 14th European Heathland Network Workshop, Poland 2015. The information and the observations included in the book may also serve as references and arguments in further discussions at future biennial conferences organised by and for people fascinated by heaths, working for their proper use, preservation and reconstruction

    Afforestation of heathlands and its influence on the land cover, accumulation of plant biomass and energy flow in the landscape: An example from Zaborski Landscape Park

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    In the mid-19th century, the sheep industry played a considerable part in sheep breeding in Pomerania. Livestock grazing took place on extensive heathlands developed as a result of land deforestation performed in the 17th and 18th century, as well as during and after the Napoleonic wars. The sheep industry and the related textile craft developed until the 1890s when the Prussian government began the restoration of forests after the period of their excessive exploitation. The Prussian government policy contributed to the afforestation and the growing forest range through purchasing of landed estates, in particular the Polish ones, and creating forest divisions, followed by reconstruction of forests. This paper presents the history of the Widno estate belonging to Mr. Konstanty Przytarski. The estate was located in the northern part of the present-day Zaborski Landscape Park, near the town of Brusy and Chojnice. In 1894, the estate was sold to the Prussian forest administration. The paper presents changes in the land use and the forest above-ground biomass. Furthermore, changes in the structure of the energy flow network through the natural and production-cultural subsystems are presented. The network structure was analysed according to the methodology presented by H.T. Odum. Data contained in the sales contract of the Widno estate were used in the analysis, together with a forest inventory book of the Prussian Forest Inspectorate Zwangshoff and inventory books of the Polish Inspectorate Przymuszewo. The study highlighted the increasing role of sheep breeding on small family farms established by employees of the forest division on the leased lands. This form of activity refers to the economic traditions in the region of Zabory
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