1,489 research outputs found

    An Approach to Conceptual Schema Evolution

    Get PDF
    In this work we will analyse conceptual foundations of user centric content management. Content management often involves integration of content that was created from different points of view. Current modeling techniques and especially current systems lack of a sufficient support of handling these situations. Although schema integration is undecideable in general, we will introduce a conceptual model together with a modeling and maintenance methodology that simplifies content integration in many practical situations. We will define a conceptual model based on the Higher-Order Entity Relationship Model that combines advantages of schema oriented modeling techniques like ER modeling with element driven paradims like approaches for semistructured data management. This model is ready to support contextual reasoning based on local model semantics. For the special case of schema evolution based on schema versioning we will derive the compatibility relation between local models by tracking dependencies of schema revisions. Additionally, we will discuss implementational facets, such as storage aspects for structurally flexible content or generation of adaptive user interfaces based on a conceptual interaction model

    Bimetallic Cooperativity in Proton Reduction with an Amido‐Bridged Cobalt Catalyst

    Get PDF
    The bimetallic catalyst [CoII2(L1)(bpy)2]ClO4 (1), in which L1 is an [NN′2O2] fused ligand, efficiently reduced H+ to H2 in CH3CN in the presence of 100 equiv of HOAc with a turnover number of 18 and a Faradaic efficiency of 94 % after 3 h of bulk electrolysis at −1.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). This observation allowed the proposal that this bimetallic cooperativity is associated with distance, angle, and orbital alignment of the two Co centers, as promoted by the unique Co−Namido−Co environment offered by L1. Experimental results revealed that the parent [CoIICoII] complex undergoes two successive metal‐based 1 e− reductions to generate the catalytically active species [CoICoI], and DFT calculations suggested that addition of a proton to one CoI triggers a cooperative 1 e− transfer by each of these CoI centers. This 2 e− transfer is an alternative route to generate a more reactive [CoII(CoII−H−)] hydride, thus avoiding the CoIII−H− required in monometallic species. This [CoII(CoII−H−)] species then accepts another H+ to release H2

    Psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavior therapy of chronic depression : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Get PDF
    Background: Despite limited effectiveness of short-term psychotherapy for chronic depression, there is a lack of trials of long-term psychotherapy. Our study is the first to determine the effectiveness of controlled long-term psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral (CBT) treatments and to assess the effects of preferential vs. randomized assessment. Methods/design: Patients are assigned to treatment according to their preference or randomized (if they have no clear preference). Up to 80 sessions of psychodynamic or psychoanalytically oriented treatments (PAT) or up to 60 sessions of CBT are offered during the first year in the study. After the first year, PAT can be continued according to the ‘naturalistic’ usual method of treating such patients within the system of German health care (normally from 240 up to 300 sessions over two to three years). CBT therapists may extend their treatment up to 80 sessions, but focus mainly maintenance and relapse prevention. We plan to recruit a total of 240 patients (60 per arm). A total of 11 assessments are conducted throughout treatment and up to three years after initiation of treatment. The primary outcome measures are the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS, independent clinician rating) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) after the first year. Discussion: We combine a naturalistic approach with randomized controlled trials(RCTs)to investigate how effectively chronic depression can be treated on an outpatient basis by the two forms of treatment reimbursed in the German healthcare system and we will determine the effects of treatment preference vs. randomization

    Efficient generation of neural stem cell-like cells from adult human bone marrow stromal cells

    Get PDF
    Clonogenic neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing cells that maintain the capacity to differentiate into brain-specific cell types, and may also replace or repair diseased brain tissue. NSCs can be directly isolated from fetal or adult nervous tissue, or derived from embryonic stem cells. Here, we describe the efficient conversion of human adult bone marrow stromal cells (hMSC) into a neural stem cell-like population (hmNSC, for human marrow-derived NSC-like cells). These cells grow in neurosphere-like structures, express high levels of early neuroectodermal markers, such as the proneural genes NeuroD1, Neurog2, MSl1 as well as otx1 and nestin, but lose the characteristics of mesodermal stromal cells. In the presence of selected growth factors, hmNSCs can be differentiated into the three main neural phenotypes: astroglia, oligodendroglia and neurons. Clonal analysis demonstrates that individual hmNSCs are multipotent and retain the capacity to generate both glia and neurons. Our cell culture system provides a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of neural differentiation in adult human NSCs. hmNSCs may therefore ultimately help to treat acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases

    Content warehouses

    Get PDF
    Nowadays, content management systems are an established technology. Based on the experiences from several application scenarios we discuss the points of contact between content management systems and other disciplines of information systems engineering like data warehouses, data mining, and data integration. We derive a system architecture called "content warehouse" that integrates these technologies and defines a more general and more sophisticated view on content management. As an example, a system for the collection, maintenance, and evaluation of biological content like survey data or multimedia resources is shown as a case study

    Exploring Audiovisual Support Systems for In-Car Multiparty Conferencing

    Get PDF
    Calling while driving poses a severe safety risk. When more than two people are involved in a call - a conference call - this risk increases even more. Intelligent vehicles could offer support systems that ease the cognitive burden of such a multiparty calls. We explore the possibilities of such advanced driving assistant systems (ADAS) in two ways: first, we investigate object-based spatial audio where each remote caller is modeled as a distinct audio source. Second, we apply a non-intrusive ambient stereoscopic 3D (S3D) visualization that indicates the current speaker and its location. In a between-subject design driving simulator study (n=56), we assess workload, user experience and driving performance. Surprisingly, we found no positive effect of object-based audio. However, we present evidence how a supporting visualization might lower situational stress and increase the system’s dependability. We conclude that a supportive and intelligent stereoscopic visualization is a promising candidate for enhancing multiparty conference calls while driving

    Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity I: General issues and specific studies

    Get PDF
    The many facets of grammatical gender remain one of the most fruitful areas of linguistic research, and pose fascinating questions about the origins and development of complexity in language. The present work is a two-volume collection of 13 chapters on the topic of grammatical gender seen through the prism of linguistic complexity. The contributions discuss what counts as complex and/or simple in grammatical gender systems, whether the distribution of gender systems across the world’s languages relates to the language ecology and social history of speech communities. Contributors demonstrate how the complexity of gender systems can be studied synchronically, both in individual languages and over large cross-linguistic samples, and diachronically, by exploring how gender systems change over time. In addition to three chapters on the theoretical foundations of gender complexity, volume one contains six chapters on grammatical gender and complexity in individual languages and language families of Africa, New Guinea, and South Asia. This volume is complemented by volume two, which consists of three chapters providing diachronic and typological case studies, followed by a final chapter discussing old and new theoretical and empirical challenges in the study of the dynamics of gender complexity

    Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity I: General issues and specific studies

    Get PDF
    The many facets of grammatical gender remain one of the most fruitful areas of linguistic research, and pose fascinating questions about the origins and development of complexity in language. The present work is a two-volume collection of 13 chapters on the topic of grammatical gender seen through the prism of linguistic complexity. The contributions discuss what counts as complex and/or simple in grammatical gender systems, whether the distribution of gender systems across the world’s languages relates to the language ecology and social history of speech communities. Contributors demonstrate how the complexity of gender systems can be studied synchronically, both in individual languages and over large cross-linguistic samples, and diachronically, by exploring how gender systems change over time. In addition to three chapters on the theoretical foundations of gender complexity, volume one contains six chapters on grammatical gender and complexity in individual languages and language families of Africa, New Guinea, and South Asia. This volume is complemented by volume two, which consists of three chapters providing diachronic and typological case studies, followed by a final chapter discussing old and new theoretical and empirical challenges in the study of the dynamics of gender complexity
    corecore