10 research outputs found

    Glecaprevir and pibrentasvir for 12 weeks for hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection and prior direct-acting antiviral treatment: Poordad et al.

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    Although direct‐acting antiviral (DAA) therapies for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have demonstrated high rates of sustained virologic response, virologic failure may still occur, potentially leading to the emergence of viral resistance, which can decrease the effectiveness of subsequent treatment. Treatment options for patients who failed previous DAA‐containing regimens, particularly those with nonstructural protein 5A inhibitors, are limited and remain an area of unmet medical need. This phase 2, open‐label study (MAGELLAN‐1) evaluated the efficacy and safety of glecaprevir (GLE) + pibrentasvir (PIB) ± ribavirin (RBV) in HCV genotype 1–infected patients with prior virologic failure to HCV DAA‐containing therapy. A total of 50 patients without cirrhosis were randomized to three arms: 200 mg GLE + 80 mg PIB (arm A), 300 mg GLE + 120 mg PIB with 800 mg once‐daily RBV (arm B), or 300 mg GLE + 120 mg PIB without RBV (arm C). By intent‐to‐treat analysis, sustained virologic response at posttreatment week 12 was achieved in 100% (6/6, 95% confidence interval 61‐100), 95% (21/22, 95% confidence interval 78‐99), and 86% (19/22, 95% confidence interval 67‐95) of patients in arms A, B, and C, respectively. Virologic failure occurred in no patients in arm A and in 1 patient each in arms B and C (two patients were lost to follow‐up in arm C). The majority of adverse events were mild in severity; no serious adverse events related to study drug and no relevant laboratory abnormalities in alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, or hemoglobin were observed. Conclusion: The combination of GLE and PIB was highly efficacious and well tolerated in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and prior failure of DAA‐containing therapy; RBV coadministration did not improve efficacy. (Hepatology 2017;66:389–397)

    Green Washing Your Clothes

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    The purpose of implementing a correlational design study was to determine how individuals perceived eco-friendly (green) detergents in terms of sustainability and performance compared to generic laundry detergents. It was hypothesized that participants would perceive green detergents as superior in sustainability but inferior in performance compared to its counterparts. In this study, participants were intercepted on UBC campus with verbal consent and were asked to answer a quick survey preceding a printed image of a laundry detergent. Surveys included a free-association task, in which participants were asked to generate words after being shown an image of the respective detergent, consumer behaviour questions, Likert-scale questions regarding personal and perceived cleanliness and sustainability, and basic demographic/psychographic questions. Subsequent results conclude that Nellie’s, a green product, was perceived as the most sustainable option. However, in terms of performance, it scored the same as its generic counterparts, supporting only half of our proposed hypothesis. Students (or perhaps Millennials) may already have certain brands in mind with regards to laundry detergents, but are flexible in trying new ones. Repositioning Nellie’s as the premier sustainable brand and changing its packaging can potentially allow students to shift their preferences and opt for greener products. Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report.”Arts, Faculty ofPsychology, Department ofUnreviewedUndergraduat

    Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 or 4 and past direct-acting antiviral treatment failure

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    Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) who have virological failure (VF) after treatment containing a nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitor have limited retreatment options. MAGELLAN-1 Part 2 was a randomized, open-label, phase 3 study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ribavirin (RBV)-free glecaprevir and pibrentasvir (G/P; 300 mg/120 mg) in patients with chronic HCV and past VF on at least one NS3/4A protease and/or NS5A inhibitor-containing therapy. Patients with compensated liver disease, with or without cirrhosis, and HCV genotype (GT) 1, 4, 5, or 6 were randomized 1:1 to receive 12 or 16 weeks of G/P. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response (SVR) at 12 weeks posttreatment (SVR12). Among 91 patients treated, 87 had GT1 and 4 had GT4 infection. SVR12 was achieved by 89% (39 of 44) and 91% (43 of 47) of patients who received 12 and 16 weeks of G/P, respectively. Virological relapse occurred in 9% (4 of 44) of patients treated with 12 weeks of G/P; there were no relapses with 16 weeks of treatment. Past treatment history with one class of inhibitor (protease or NS5A) had no impact on SVR12, whereas past treatment with both classes of inhibitors was associated with lower SVR12 rate. The most common adverse event (AE) was headache (≄10% of patients), and there were no serious AEs assessed as related to study drugs or AEs leading to discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Sixteen weeks of G/P treatment achieved a high SVR12 rate in patients with HCV GT1 infection and past failure to regimens containing either NS5A inhibitors or NS3 protease inhibitors. (Hepatology 2018;67:1253-1260)

    Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir for hepatitis C virus genotype 3 patients with cirrhosis and/or prior treatment experience: A partially randomized phase 3 clinical trial

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    International audienceThis study assessed the efficacy and safety of ribavirin‐free coformulated glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection with prior treatment experience and/or compensated cirrhosis, a patient population with limited treatment options. SURVEYOR‐II, Part 3 was a partially randomized, open‐label, multicenter, phase 3 study. Treatment‐experienced (prior interferon or pegylated interferon ± ribavirin or sofosbuvir plus ribavirin ± pegylated interferon therapy) patients without cirrhosis were randomized 1:1 to receive 12 or 16 weeks of G/P (300 mg/120 mg) once daily. Treatment‐naive or treatment‐experienced patients with compensated cirrhosis were treated with G/P for 12 or 16 weeks, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients with sustained virologic response at posttreatment week 12 (SVR12). Safety was evaluated throughout the study. There were 131 patients enrolled and treated. Among treatment‐experienced patients without cirrhosis, SVR12 was achieved by 91% (20/22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 72‐97) and 95% (21/22; 95% CI, 78‐99) of patients treated with G/P for 12 or 16 weeks, respectively. Among those with cirrhosis, SVR12 was achieved by 98% (39/40; 95% CI, 87‐99) of treatment‐naive patients treated for 12 weeks and 96% (45/47; 95% CI, 86‐99) of patients with prior treatment experience treated for 16 weeks. No adverse events led to discontinuation of study drug, and no serious adverse events were related to study drug. Conclusion: Patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection with prior treatment experience and/or compensated cirrhosis achieved high SVR12 rates following 12 or 16 weeks of treatment with G/P. The regimen was well tolerated

    Glecaprevir and pibrentasvir for 12 weeks for hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection and prior direct‐acting antiviral treatment

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    Although direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have demonstrated high rates of sustained virologic response, virologic failure may still occur, potentially leading to the emergence of viral resistance, which can decrease the effectiveness of subsequent treatment. Treatment options for patients who failed previous DAA-containing regimens, particularly those with nonstructural protein 5A inhibitors, are limited and remain an area of unmet medical need. This phase 2, open-label study (MAGELLAN-1) evaluated the efficacy and safety of glecaprevir (GLE) + pibrentasvir (PIB) ± ribavirin (RBV) in HCV genotype 1-infected patients with prior virologic failure to HCV DAA-containing therapy. A total of 50 patients without cirrhosis were randomized to three arms: 200 mg GLE + 80 mg PIB (arm A), 300 mg GLE + 120 mg PIB with 800 mg once-daily RBV (arm B), or 300 mg GLE + 120 mg PIB without RBV (arm C). By intent-to-treat analysis, sustained virologic response at posttreatment week 12 was achieved in 100% (6/6, 95% confidence interval 61-100), 95% (21/22, 95% confidence interval 78-99), and 86% (19/22, 95% confidence interval 67-95) of patients in arms A, B, and C, respectively. Virologic failure occurred in no patients in arm A and in 1 patient each in arms B and C (two patients were lost to follow-up in arm C). The majority of adverse events were mild in severity; no serious adverse events related to study drug and no relevant laboratory abnormalities in alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, or hemoglobin were observed. CONCLUSION: The combination of GLE and PIB was highly efficacious and well tolerated in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and prior failure of DAA-containing therapy; RBV coadministration did not improve efficacy. (Hepatology 2017;66:389-397)

    Glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir for chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 infection in adults with compensated cirrhosis (EXPEDITION-1): a single-arm, open-label, multicentre phase 3 trial.

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    BACKGROUND: The once-daily, ribavirin-free, pangenotypic, direct-acting antiviral regimen, glecaprevir coformulated with pibrentasvir, has shown high rates of sustained virological response in phase 2 and 3 studies. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of 12 weeks of coformulated glecaprevir and pibrentasvir in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and compensated cirrhosis. METHODS: We did this single-arm, open-label, multicentre phase 3 study at 40 sites in Belgium, Canada, Germany, South Africa, Spain, and the USA. We enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with HCV genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 infection and compensated cirrhosis. Patients were either HCV treatment-naive or had not responded to treatment with interferon or pegylated interferon with or without ribavirin, or sofosbuvir plus ribavirin with or without pegylated interferon. Oral glecaprevir (300 mg) coformulated with pibrentasvir (120 mg) was administered once daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virological response at post-treatment week 12 (HCV RNA <15 IU/mL). We assessed efficacy and safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug (intention-to-treat population). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02642432. FINDINGS: Between Dec 7, 2015, and May 4, 2016, we enrolled 146 patients with compensated cirrhosis, of whom 48 (33%) had genotype 1a HCV infection, 39 (27%) had genotype 1b infection, 34 (23%) had genotype 2 infection, 16 (11%) had genotype 4 infection, two (1%) had genotype 5 infection, and seven (5%) had genotype 6 infection. 12 weeks after treatment, 145 patients (99%, 95% CI 98-100) achieved sustained virological response, with one (1%) relapse at post-treatment week 8. We recorded 101 (69%) adverse events, of which 65 (64%) were mild. The most common adverse events were fatigue (n=28 [19%]) and headache (n=20 [14%]). 11 (8%) patients had serious adverse events, none of which were deemed related to study drugs. No patients had elevations in alanine aminotransferase and no patients prematurely discontinued treatment because of adverse events. INTERPRETATION: Our results show that 99% of patients treated with once-daily glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir achieved a sustained virological response at 12 weeks. Furthermore, this drug regimen had a favourable safety profile in previously treated or untreated patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 infection and compensated cirrhosis. These findings could help simplify treatment algorithms and reduce treatment burden. FUNDING: AbbVie

    Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir Yield High response Rates in Patients with HCV Genotype 1-6 without Cirrhosis

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    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy that is highly efficacious, pangenotypic, with a high barrier to resistance and short treatment duration is desirable. The efficacy and safety of 8- and 12-week treatments with glecaprevir (ABT-493; NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and pibrentasvir (ABT-530; NS5A inhibitor) were evaluated in non-cirrhotic patients with chronic HCV genotype 1-6 infection. METHODS: SURVEYOR-I and SURVEYOR-II were phase II, open-label, multicenter, dose-ranging trials including patients with chronic HCV genotype 1-6 infection who were either previously untreated or treated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. Patients received once-daily glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir at varying doses with or without ribavirin for 8 or 12weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients with a sustained virologic response at post-treatment week 12 (SVR12). RESULTS: Of the 449 patients who received varying doses of glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir, 25%, 29%, 39%, and 8% had HCV genotype 1, 2, 3, and 4-6 infection, respectively. Twelve-week treatment achieved SVR12 in 97-100%, 96-100%, 83-94%, and 100% in genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4-6, respectively. Eight-week treatment with 300mg glecaprevir plus 120mg pibrentasvir in genotype 1-, 2-, or 3-infected patients yielded 97-98% SVR12 with no virologic failures. Three (0.7%) patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events; most events were mild (grade 1) in severity. No post-nadir alanine aminotransferase elevations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir was well tolerated and achieved high sustained virologic response rates in HCV genotypes 1-6-infected patients without cirrhosis following 8- or 12-week treatment durations. LAY SUMMARY: The combination of direct-acting antivirals glecaprevir and pibrentasvir comprise a once-daily, all-oral, pangenotypic treatment for HCV genotype 1-6 infection. This article describes results from two phase II trials investigating a range of doses at treatment durations of 8 or 12weeks in 449 patients without cirrhosis. Efficacy of the optimal dose, as determined by rates of sustained virologic response at post-treatment week 12, ranged from 92%-100%; treatment was well tolerated and significant laboratory abnormalities were rare. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02243280 and NCT02243293. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02243280, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01939197

    Week 96 efficacy and safety results of the phase 3, randomized EMERALD trial to evaluate switching from boosted-protease inhibitors plus emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate regimens to the once daily, single-tablet regimen of darunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) in treatment-experienced, virologically-suppressed adults living with HIV-1

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    International audienceDarunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) 800/150/200/10 mg was investigated through 96 weeks in EMERALD (NCT02269917).Virologically-suppressed, HIV-1-positive treatment-experienced adults (previous non-darunavir virologic failure [VF] allowed) were randomized (2:1) to D/C/F/TAF or boosted protease inhibitor (PI) plus emtricitabine/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate (F/TDF) over 48 weeks. At week 52 participants in the boosted PI arm were offered switch to D/C/F/TAF (late-switch, 44 weeks D/C/F/TAF exposure). All participants were followed on D/C/F/TAF until week 96. Efficacy endpoints were percentage cumulative protocol-defined virologic rebound (PDVR; confirmed viral load [VL] ≄50 copies/mL) and VL < 50 copies/mL (virologic suppression) and ≄50 copies/mL (VF) (FDA-snapshot analysis).Of 1141 randomized patients, 1080 continued in the extension phase. Few patients had PDVR (D/C/F/TAF: 3.1%, 24/763 cumulative through week 96; late-switch: 2.3%, 8/352 week 52–96). Week 96 virologic suppression was 90.7% (692/763) (D/C/F/TAF) and 93.8% (330/352) (late-switch). VF was 1.2% and 1.7%, respectively. No darunavir, primary PI, tenofovir or emtricitabine resistance-associated mutations were observed post-baseline. No patients discontinued for efficacy-related reasons. Few discontinued due to adverse events (2% D/C/F/TAF arm). Improved renal and bone parameters were maintained in the D/C/F/TAF arm and observed in the late-switch arm, with small increases in total cholesterol/high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio. A study limitation was the lack of a control arm in the week 96 analysis.Through 96 weeks, D/C/F/TAF resulted in low PDVR rates, high virologic suppression rates, very few VFs, and no resistance development. Late-switch results were consistent with D/C/F/TAF week 48 results. EMERALD week 96 results confirm the efficacy, high genetic barrier to resistance and safety benefits of D/C/F/TAF

    Effects of Ribavirin Dose Reduction vs Erythropoietin for Boceprevir-Related Anemia in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection—A Randomized Trial

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    International audienceBackground & AimsTreatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with boceprevir, peginterferon, and ribavirin can lead to anemia, which has been managed by reducing ribavirin dose and/or erythropoietin therapy. We assessed the effects of these anemia management strategies on rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) and safety.MethodsPatients (n = 687) received 4 weeks of peginterferon and ribavirin followed by 24 or 44 weeks of boceprevir (800 mg, 3 times each day) plus peginterferon and ribavirin. Patients who became anemic (levels of hemoglobin approximately ≀10 g/dL) during the study treatment period (n = 500) were assigned to groups that were managed by ribavirin dosage reduction (n = 249) or erythropoietin therapy (n = 251).ResultsRates of SVR were comparable between patients whose anemia was managed by ribavirin dosage reduction (71.5%) vs erythropoietin therapy (70.9%), regardless of the timing of the first intervention to manage anemia or the magnitude of ribavirin dosage reduction. There was a threshold for the effect on rate of SVR: patients who received <50% of the total milligrams of ribavirin assigned by the protocol had a significantly lower rate of SVR (P < .0001) than those who received ≄50%. Among patients who did not develop anemia, the rate of SVR was 40.1%. Eleven thromboembolic adverse events were reported in 9 of 295 patients who received erythropoietin, compared with 1 of 392 patients who did not receive erythropoietin.ConclusionsReduction of ribavirin dosage can be the primary approach for management of anemia in patients receiving peginterferon, ribavirin, and boceprevir for HCV infection. Reduction in ribavirin dosage throughout the course of triple therapy does not affect rates of SVR. However, it is important that the patient receives at least 50% of the total amount (milligrams) of ribavirin assigned by response-guided therapy

    Effects of Ribavirin Dose Reduction vs Erythropoietin for Boceprevir-Related Anemia in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection—A Randomized Trial

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