162 research outputs found

    Low risk of hyperprogression with first-line chemoimmunotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: pooled analysis of 7 clinical trials

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    Background Monotherapy immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) used in second- or later-line settings has been reported to induce hyperprogression. This study evaluated hyperprogression risk with ICI (atezolizumab) in the first-, second-, or later-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and provides insights into hyperprogression risk with contemporary first-line ICI treatment. Methods Hyperprogression was identified using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST)-based criteria in a dataset of pooled individual-participant level data from BIRCH, FIR, IMpower130, IMpower131, IMpower150, OAK, and POPLAR trials. Odds ratios were computed to compare hyperprogression risks between groups. Landmark Cox proportional-hazard regression was used to evaluate the association between hyperprogression and progression-free survival/overall survival. Secondarily, putative risk factors for hyperprogression among second- or later-line atezolizumab-treated patients were evaluated using univariate logistic regression models. Results Of the included 4644 patients, 119 of the atezolizumab-treated patients (n = 3129) experienced hyperprogression. Hyperprogression risk was markedly lower with first-line atezolizumab-either chemoimmunotherapy or monotherapy-compared to second/later-line atezolizumab monotherapy (0.7% vs. 8.8%, OR = 0.07, 95% CI, 0.04-0.13). Further, there was no statistically significant difference in hyperprogression risk with first-line atezolizumab-chemoimmunotherapy versus chemotherapy alone (0.6% vs. 1.0%, OR = 0.55, 95% CI, 0.22-1.36). Sensitivity analyses using an extended RECIST-based criteria including early death supported these findings. Hyperprogression was associated with worsened overall survival (HR = 3.4, 95% CI, 2.7-4.2, P < .001); elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was the strongest risk factor for hyperprogression (C-statistic = 0.62, P < .001). Conclusions This study presents first evidence for a markedly lower hyperprogression risk in advanced NSCLC patients treated with first-line ICI, particularly with chemoimmunotherapy, as compared to second- or later-line ICI treatment. This study evaluated hyperprogression risk with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) in the first-, second-, or later-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer, providing insight into hyperprogression risk with contemporary first-line ICI treatment

    Pretreated EGFRdel19/BRAFV600E Lung Adenocarcinoma With Leptomeningeal Disease Achieving Long-Lasting Disease Control on Osimertinib, Dabrafenib, and Trametinib: A Case Report

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    Oncogene-addicted NSCLC inevitably becomes resistant to targeted therapy by developing acquired resistance through on- or off-target mechanisms, potentially detectable by liquid biopsy. We present the first reported case of a patient with pretreated EGFRdel19/BRAFV600E lung adenocarcinoma and symptomatic leptomeningeal metastasis obtaining durable clinical benefit on osimertinib, dabrafenib, and trametinib treatment

    TROPION-Lung08: phase III study of datopotamab deruxtecan plus pembrolizumab as first-line therapy for advanced NSCLC

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    Antibody–drug conjugate; Immuno-oncology; Non-small-cell lung cancerConjugado anticuerpo-fármaco; Inmuno-oncología; Cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñasConjugat anticòs-fàrmac; Immuno-oncologia; Càncer de pulmó de cèl·lules no petitesPembrolizumab monotherapy is a standard first-line treatment for PD-L1–high advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without actionable genomic alterations (AGA). However, few patients experience long-term disease control, highlighting the need for more effective therapies. Datopotamab deruxtecan (Dato-DXd), a novel trophoblast cell-surface antigen 2-directed antibody–drug conjugate, showed encouraging safety and antitumor activity with pembrolizumab in advanced NSCLC. We describe the rationale and design of TROPION-Lung08, a phase III study evaluating safety and efficacy of first-line Dato-DXd plus pembrolizumab versus pembrolizumab monotherapy in patients with advanced/metastatic NSCLC without AGAs and with PD-L1 tumor proportion score ≥50%. Primary end points are progression-free survival and overall survival; secondary end points include objective response rate, duration of response, safety and presence of antidrug antibodies.This study is sponsored by Daiichi Sankyo, Inc. In July 2020, Daiichi Sankyo entered into a global development and commercialization collaboration agreement with AstraZeneca for datopotamab deruxtecan (Dato-DXd). Pembrolizumab is being provided under agreement by Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC, a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA (MSD). BP Levy received consulting fees from Amgen, AstraZeneca, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Mirati, Novartis, Pfizer, and Roche/Genentech. E Felip received consulting fees and/or honoraria from Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer, BerGenBio, Bristol Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly, Roche, GSK, Janssen, Medical Trends, Medscape, Merck Serono, MSD, Novartis, PeerVoice, Peptomyc, Pfizer, Sanofi, Takeda, and touchONCOLOGY and grant funding to her institution from Merck KGaA and Fundación Merck Salud. E Felip is an independent member of the Grífols Board of Directors. M Reck received consulting fees, honoraria, and support for attending meetings from Amgen, AstraZeneca, BeiGene, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly, GSK, Mirati, Merck, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Roche, and Regeneron and served on data safety monitoring boards for Daiichi Sankyo and Sanofi. JCH Yang received consulting or advisory fees from Ono Pharmaceuticals and Pfizer, grant funding to his institution from AstraZeneca and advisory or consulting fees to his institution from Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly, Gilead, GSK, Johnson & Johnson, Merck KGaA, MSD, Novartis, Puma Technology, Roche/Genentech, Takeda and Yuhan Pharmaceuticals. F Cappuzzo received consulting fees from AstraZeneca, Bayer, Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Merck, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, PharmaMar, Roche, and Takeda. C Zhou received consulting fees and/or honoraria from Amoy Diagnostics, AnHeart Therapeutics, Boehringer Ingelheim, CStone Pharmaceuticals, Luye Pharma Group, Eli Lilly China, Jiangsu Hengrui Pharmaceuticals, Innovent Biologics, MSD, Qilu Pharmaceutical, Roche, Sanofi, and TopAlliance Biosciences. S Rawat is an employee of and owns stock and/or stock options in Daiichi Sankyo. P Basak and J Xie are employees of Daiichi Sankyo. L Xu was an employee at MSD at the time this study was designed and is a current employee of AstraZeneca. J Sands received consulting fees from AstraZeneca, Curadev, Daiichi Sankyo, Guardant Health, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Medtronic, PharmaMar, Sanofi, and Takeda and is the treasurer of the Rescue Lung Society. Y Yoneshima declares no potential conflicts. The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed. The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed

    hMENA isoforms regulate cancer intrinsic type I IFN signaling and extrinsic mechanisms of resistance to immune checkpoint blockade in NSCLC

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    Background Understanding how cancer signaling pathways promote an immunosuppressive program which sustains acquired or primary resistance to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is a crucial step in improving immunotherapy efficacy. Among the pathways that can affect ICB response is the interferon (IFN) pathway that may be both detrimental and beneficial. The immune sensor retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) induces IFN activation and secretion and is activated by actin cytoskeleton disturbance. The actin cytoskeleton regulatory protein hMENA, along with its isoforms, is a key signaling hub in different solid tumors, and recently its role as a regulator of transcription of genes encoding immunomodulatory secretory proteins has been proposed. When hMENA is expressed in tumor cells with low levels of the epithelial specific hMENA11a isoform, identifies non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with poor prognosis. Aim was to identify cancer intrinsic and extrinsic pathways regulated by hMENA11a downregulation as determinants of ICB response in NSCLC. Here, we present a potential novel mechanism of ICB resistance driven by hMENA11a downregulation.Methods Effects of hMENA11a downregulation were tested by RNA-Seq, ATAC-Seq, flow cytometry and biochemical assays. ICB-treated patient tumor tissues were profiled by Nanostring IO 360 Panel enriched with hMENA custom probes. OAK and POPLAR datasets were used to validate our discovery cohort.Results Transcriptomic and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the depletion of hMENA11a induces IFN pathway activation, the production of different inflammatory mediators including IFNβ via RIG-I, sustains the increase of tumor PD-L1 levels and activates a paracrine loop between tumor cells and a unique macrophage subset favoring an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Notably, when we translated our results in a clinical setting of NSCLC ICB-treated patients, transcriptomic analysis revealed that low expression of hMENA11a, high expression of IFN target genes and high macrophage score identify patients resistant to ICB therapy.Conclusions Collectively, these data establish a new function for the actin cytoskeleton regulator hMENA11a in modulating cancer cell intrinsic type I IFN signaling and extrinsic mechanisms that promote protumoral macrophages and favor EMT. These data highlight the role of actin cytoskeleton disturbance in activating immune suppressive pathways that may be involved in resistance to ICB in NSCLC

    Surgical and survival outcomes with perioperative or neoadjuvant immune-checkpoint inhibitors combined with platinum-based chemotherapy in resectable NSCLC: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials

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    : The use of neoadjuvant or perioperative anti-PD(L)1 was recently tested in multiple clinical trials. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials comparing neoadjuvant or perioperative chemoimmunotherapy to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in resectable NSCLC. Nine reports from 6 studies were included. Receipt of surgery was more frequent in the experimental arm (odds ratio, OR 1.39) as was pCR (OR 7.60). EFS was improved in the experimental arm (hazard ratio, HR 0.55) regardless of stage, histology, PD-L1 expression (PD-L1 negative, HR 0.74) and smoking exposure (never smokers, HR 0.67), as was OS (HR 0.67). Grade &gt;&nbsp;= 3 treatment-related adverse events were more frequent in the experimental arm (OR 1.22). The experimental treatment improved surgical outcomes, pCR rates, EFS and OS in stage II-IIIB, EGFR/ALK negative resectable NSCLC; confirmatory evidence is warranted for stage IIIB tumours and with higher maturity of the OS endpoint

    Poziotinib in Treatment-Naive NSCLC Harboring HER2 Exon 20 Mutations:ZENITH20-4, A Multicenter, Multicohort, Open-Label, Phase 2 Trial (Cohort 4)

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    Introduction: ERBB2 or HER2 alterations are found in approximately 2% to 5% of NSCLCs; most are exon 20 insertion mutations. The efficacy and safety of poziotinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, were assessed in patients with treatment-naive NSCLC whose tumors harbor HER2 exon 20 insertions. Methods: ZENITH20 is an open-label, multicohort, multicenter, global, phase 2 trial. ZENITH20-C4 enrolled treatment-naive patients with NSCLC with tumors harboring HER2 exon 20 insertions. Poziotinib was administered 16 mg once daily (QD) or 8 mg twice daily (BID). The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) by independent central review. Secondary and exploratory end points included disease control rate, duration of response, progression-free survival, and safety. Results: A total of 80 patients (16 mg QD, n = 47; 8 mg BID, n = 33) were treated in ZENITH20-C4. ORR was 39% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 28%–50%; 31 of 80), with a disease control rate of 73% (95% CI: 61%–82%; 58 of 80); 80% of the patients experienced tumor reduction. Median duration of response was 5.7 (95% CI: 4.6–11.9) months, and median progression-free survival was 5.6 (95% CI: 5.4–7.3) months. The most common grade 3 treatment-related adverse events were rash (QD, 45%; BID, 39%), stomatitis (QD, 21%; BID, 15%), and diarrhea (QD, 15%; BID, 21%). Among all subtypes of HER2 exon 20 insertions, seven patients (9%) harboring tumors with G778_P780dupGSP had the best clinical outcomes (ORR, 71%). Conclusions: Poziotinib was found to have clinically meaningful efficacy with a manageable toxicity profile for patients with treatment-naive NSCLC harboring HER2 exon 20 mutations.</p

    Biomarkers of Response and Resistance to CDK4/6 Inhibitors in Breast Cancer: Hints from Liquid Biopsy and microRNA Exploration

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    New evidence on the impact of dysregulation of the CDK4/6 pathway on breast cancer (BC) cell proliferation has led to the development of selective CDK4/6 inhibitors, which have radically changed the management of advanced BC. Despite the improved outcomes obtained by CDK4/6 inhibitors, approximately 10% of tumors show primary resistance, whereas acquired resistance appears to be an almost ubiquitous occurrence, leading to treatment failure. The identification of differentially expressed genes or genomic mutational signatures able to predict sensitivity or resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors is critical for medical decision making and for avoiding or counteracting primary or acquired resistance against CDK4/6 inhibitors. In this review, we summarize the main mechanisms of resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors, focusing on those associated with potentially relevant biomarkers that could predict patients&rsquo; response/resistance to treatment. Recent advances in biomarker identification are discussed, including the potential use of liquid biopsy for BC management and the role of multiple microRNAs as molecular predictors of cancer cell sensitivity and resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors

    A Real-World Systematic Analysis of Driver Mutations’ Prevalence in Early- and Advanced-Stage NSCLC: Implications for Targeted Therapies in the Adjuvant Setting

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    The approval of osimertinib for adjuvant treatment of stage I–II–III EGFR-mutated NSCLC (early stage) represents a paradigm shift, raising the question of whether other genotype-matched therapeutics approved for advanced-stage NSCLC can also provide clinical benefit in the adjuvant setting. However, there is a paucity of real-world data on the prevalence of actionable genomic alterations (GAs) in early-stage NSCLC. We used next-generation sequencing, complemented by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, to screen our single-institution cohort of 1961 NSCLC consecutive cases for actionable molecular targets. The prevalence of actionable GAs was comparable in early versus advanced-stage NSCLC, the only exception being KRAS mutations (more frequent in early-stage cases). Consistent with advanced-stage tumors being more aggressive, co-occurrence of TP53 and EGFR GAs as well as copy number gains were less frequent in early-stage tumors. EGFR mutations and high expression of PD-L1 were inversely associated, whereas KRAS mutations and high PD-L1 reactivity showed positive association. Recapitulating advanced-stage tumors, early-stage NSCLC had the highest share of EGFR mutations in lepidic and acinar subtypes. Resected lepidic tumors contained the highest proportion of the KRAS G12C actionable variant. These results, obtained with routine diagnostic technologies in an unselected clinical setting, provide a significant addition of real-world data in early-stage NSCLC

    Host immune-inflammatory markers to unravel the heterogeneous outcome and assessment of patients with PD-L1 ≥50% metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and poor performance status receiving first-line immunotherapy

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    Background: Patients with programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) ≥50% metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) and ECOG performance status (PS) of 2 treated with first-line immunotherapy have heterogeneous clinical assessment and outcomes. Methods: To explore the role of immune-inflammatory surrogates by the validated lung immuno-oncology prognostic score (LIPS) score, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the pretreatment use of steroids, alongside other prognostic variables. A retrospective analysis of 128 patients with PS2 and PD-L1 ≥50% mNSCLC treated between April 2018 and September 2019 with first-line pembrolizumab in a real-world setting was performed. Results: With a median follow-up of 15.3 months, the 1-year overall survival (OS) and median progression-free survival (PFS) were 32.3% (95% CI: 30.9–33.9) and 3.3 months (95% CI: 1.8–4.7), respectively. The NLR, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pretreatment steroids results were the only significant prognostic factors on the univariate analysis and independent prognostic factors by the multivariate analysis on both OS and PFS. The LIPS score, including the NLR and pretreatment steroids, identified 29 (23%) favourable-risk patients, with 0 factors, 1-year OS of 67.6% and median PFS of 8.2 months; 57 (45%) intermediate-risk patients, with 1 factor, 1-year OS 32.1% and median PFS 2.7 months; 42 (33%) poor-risk patients, with both factors, 1-year OS of 10.7% and median PFS of 1.2 months. Conclusions: The assessment of pre-existing imbalance of the host immune response by combined blood and clinical immune-inflammatory markers may represent a way to unravel the heterogeneous outcome and assessment of patients with mNSCLC and poor PS in the immune-oncology setting

    Analysis of Molecular Biomarkers in Resected Early-Stage Non-Small Cells Lung Cancer: A Narrative Review

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    Next-generation sequencing has become a cornerstone in clinical oncology practice and is recommended for the appropriate use of tailored therapies in NSCLC. While NGS has already been standardised in advanced-stage NSCLC, its use is still uncommon in the early stages. The recent approval of Osimertinib for resected EGFR-mutated NSCLC in an adjuvant setting has launched the hypothesis that other targeted therapies used in metastatic patients can also lead to improved early-stage outcomes of NSCLC. The impact of molecular biomarkers on the prognosis of patients undergoing radical surgery for NSCLC is still unclear. Notably, the heterogeneous populations included in the studies that analysed surgical patients could be the main reason for these results. In this review, we report the most important studies that analysed the impact of principal molecular biomarkers on the survival outcomes of patients who underwent radical surgery for NSCLC
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